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EQTip11

EQTip11

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Published by: raj_ferrari on Apr 29, 2010
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 What are the Indian Seismic Codes? 
Earthquake Tip 
11
LearningEarthquake DesignandConstruction
Importance of Seismic Design Codes
 Ground vibrations during earthquakes causeforces and deformations in structures. Structures needto be designed to withstand such forces anddeformations. Seismic codes help to improve thebehaviour of structures so that they may withstand theearthquake effects without significant loss of life andproperty. Countries around the world haveprocedures outlined in seismic codes to help designengineers in the planning, designing, detailing andconstructing of structures. An earthquake-resistantbuilding has four
virtues
in it, namely:(a)
Good Structural Configuration
: Its size, shape andstructural system carrying loads are such that theyensure a direct and smooth flow of inertia forces tothe ground.(b)
Lateral Strength
: The maximum lateral (horizontal)force that it can resist is such that the damageinduced in it does not result in collapse.(c)
 Adequate Stiffness
: Its lateral load resisting system issuch that the earthquake-induced deformations init do not damage its contents under low-to-moderate shaking.(d)
Good Ductility
: Its capacity to undergo largedeformations under severe earthquake shakingeven after yielding, is improved by favourabledesign and detailing strategies.Seismic codes cover all these aspects.
Indian Seismic Codes
Seismic codes are unique to a particular region orcountry. They take into account the local seismology,accepted level of seismic risk, building typologies, andmaterials and methods used in construction. Further,they are indicative of the level of progress a countryhas made in the field of earthquake engineering.The first formal seismic code in India, namely IS1893, was published in 1962. Today, the Bureau ofIndian Standards (BIS) has the
 
following seismic codes:IS 1893 (Part I), 2002,
Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures
(5
th
Revision)IS 4326, 1993,
Indian Standard Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings
(2
nd
Revision)IS 13827, 1993,
Indian Standard Guidelines for ImprovingEarthquake Resistance of Earthen Buildings
IS 13828, 1993,
Indian Standard Guidelines for ImprovingEarthquake Resistance of Low Strength MasonryBuildings
 IS 13920, 1993,
Indian Standard Code of Practice for Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete StructuresSubjected to Seismic Forces
 IS 13935, 1993,
Indian Standard Guidelines for Repair andSeismic Strengthening of Buildings
The regulations in these standards do not ensurethat structures suffer
no damage
during earthquake of
all magnitudes
. But, to the extent possible, they ensurethat structures are able to respond to earthquakeshakings of
moderate intensities
without
structuraldamage
and of
heavy intensities
without
total collapse
.
IS 1893 
IS 1893 is the main code that provides the seismiczone map (Figure 1) and specifies seismic design force.This force depends on the mass and seismic coefficientof the structure; the latter in turn depends onproperties like seismic zone in which structure lies,importance of the structure, its stiffness, the soil onwhich it rests, and its ductility. For example, abuilding in Bhuj will have 2.25 times the seismicdesign force of an identical building in Bombay.Similarly, the seismic coefficient for a single-storeybuilding may have 2.5 times that of a 15-storeybuilding.
Figure 2: Seismic Zone Map of India showing
four seismic zones
- over 60% of India’s land under seismic zones III, IV and V 
.
 
SeismicZoneV

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