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Column Buckling Lab

Column Buckling Lab

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Published by: cjc5184 on Apr 30, 2010
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12/10/2012

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AEROSPACE 305W STRUCTURES & DYNAMICSLABORATORY
Laboratory Experiment #2
Column Buckling
April 6, 2010
Chris CameronSection 18
Lab Partners:Joseph O’LearyZeljko RaicMichael YoungJonathan Hudak Gregory Palencar Course Instructor: Dr. Stephen ConlonLab TA: Mike Thiel
 
Abstract
Columns are commonly used in engineering and specifically in aerospace in situationssuch as the ribbing in wings. They support a load but most often their critical load is determined by when buckling occurs. This buckling is caused either by imperfections in the column or theloading. This experiment was designed with the objectives of confirming the theoretical predictions for when columns buckle and how to increase their critical load. It was assumed thatthe longer columns would buckle sooner and also the simply supported vs. clamped end columnswould also buckle sooner by a factor of 4. Another assumption was made that the increasingslenderness ratio of the columns would decrease their critical stress. The experiment was set up by loading varying lengths of beams with both simply supported and clamped fixities. A loadwas applied until the central displacement, measured using a linear variable differentialtransformer, began to increase without increase in load. The data supported the assumptionswith an error being at all points below 20%.
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I. Introduction
Columns are commonly used engineering structures that are used to carry compressive loads.A common aerospace column is the ribbing found within the airfoils on a plane. However instabilities cause columns to not only compress, but to buckle under loading. Buckling is adisproportionate increase in displacement with an additional applied load. This buckling reducesthe columns ability to carry loads and must be understood in order to determine the maximumload of a column.The objective of this lab will be to determine if shorter or longer columns buckle under different loads and if the method if fixing the ends also affects the buckling load. Also theslenderness ratio effect on the critical stress will be examined. The experimental data will becompared to theoretical data to find if the theory behind column buckling predicts the datacollected. Error between the theoretical and experimental data will give insight to improper assumptions about boundary conditions, as well as other sources of error within the experiment.Columns instabilities are due to both imperfections in the column as well as imperfections inthe loading. Columns imperfections can be due to imperfections in the material, as well as theshape of the column being imperfect. The loading imperfections occur when loads are appliedthat are not along the centerline of the beam, creating a moment on the end of the column.Columns can buckle in different ways and this is mainly dependant on the method of fixingthe ends of the column. There are three common types being clamped, simply supported andfree. Each of these types of fixities corresponds to a set of boundary conditions at the end of the beam. Free fixing allows for both displacement and rotation, simply supported will not allowdisplacement, and clamped will not allow displacement or rotation. These boundary conditionswill be used to derive the governing equations for columns.
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