Columns are commonly used engineering structures that are used to carry compressive loads.A common aerospace column is the ribbing found within the airfoils on a plane. However instabilities cause columns to not only compress, but to buckle under loading. Buckling is adisproportionate increase in displacement with an additional applied load. This buckling reducesthe columns ability to carry loads and must be understood in order to determine the maximumload of a column.The objective of this lab will be to determine if shorter or longer columns buckle under different loads and if the method if fixing the ends also affects the buckling load. Also theslenderness ratio effect on the critical stress will be examined. The experimental data will becompared to theoretical data to find if the theory behind column buckling predicts the datacollected. Error between the theoretical and experimental data will give insight to improper assumptions about boundary conditions, as well as other sources of error within the experiment.Columns instabilities are due to both imperfections in the column as well as imperfections inthe loading. Columns imperfections can be due to imperfections in the material, as well as theshape of the column being imperfect. The loading imperfections occur when loads are appliedthat are not along the centerline of the beam, creating a moment on the end of the column.Columns can buckle in different ways and this is mainly dependant on the method of fixingthe ends of the column. There are three common types being clamped, simply supported andfree. Each of these types of fixities corresponds to a set of boundary conditions at the end of the beam. Free fixing allows for both displacement and rotation, simply supported will not allowdisplacement, and clamped will not allow displacement or rotation. These boundary conditionswill be used to derive the governing equations for columns.