In Piaget's Theory of Development, there are two cognitive processes that are crucial for progressing from stage tostage: assimilation, accommodation. These two concepts are described below.
This refers to the way in which a child transforms new information so that it makes sense within their existingknowledge base. That is, a child tries to understand new knowledge in terms of their existing knowledge. For example, a baby who is given a new knowledge may grasp or suck on that object in the same way that he or shegrasped or sucked other objects.
This happens when a child changes his or her cognitive structure in an attempt to understand new information. For example, the child learns to grasp a new object in a different way, or learns that the new object should not be sucked.In that way, the child has adapted his or her way of thinking to a new experience.Taken together, assimilation and accomodation make up adaptation, which refers to the child's ability to adapt to hisor her environment.
1.Siegler, R. (1991).
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.2.Vasta, R., Haith, M. M., & Miller, S. A. (1995).
Child psychology: The modern science.
New York, NY:Wiley.
Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a term coined by Alois Alzheimer in 1907, is a relentlessly progressive diseasecharacterized by cognitive decline, behavioural disturbances, and changes in personality. Current estimates of prevalence of AD in Canada suggest that 5.1% of all Canadians 65 and over meet the criteria for the clinicaldiagnosis of AD, which translates into approximately 161,000 cases. AD prevalence is slightly higher in womenthan in men. It may be that this difference is due to the longer life expectancy of women although other factors havenot been ruled out. The prevalence of dementia is strongly associated with age, affecting 1% of the Canadian population aged 65 to 74, 6.9% of individuals 75-84 and 26% of individuals 85 years and older (Canadian Study of Health and Aging, 1994).The diagnostic criteria for dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT) are as follows:
(A) The development of multiple cognitive deficits manifested by both:3.Memory impairment (impaired ability to learn new information or to recall previously learnedinformation)4.One or more of the following cognitive disturbances:
aphasia (language disturbance)
apraxia (impaired ability to carry out motor activities despite intact motor function)
agnosia (failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory function)
disturbances in executive functioning (i.e., planning, organizing, sequencing, abstracting)
(B) The cognitive deficits in Criteria A1 and A2 each cause significant impairment in social andoccupational functioning and represent a significant decline from a previous level of functioning.
(C) The course is characterized by gradual onset and continuing cognitive decline
(D) The cognitive deficits in Criteria A1 and A2 are not due to any of the following:1.other central nervous system conditions that cause progressive deficits in memory and cognition(e.g., cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, subdural hematoma,normal pressure hydrocephalus, brain tumor).2.systemic conditions that are known to cause a dementia (e.g., hypothyroidism, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency, hypercalcemia, neurosyphilis, HIV infection)3.substance-induced conditions
(E) The deficits do not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium
(F) The disturbance is not better accounted for by another Axis 1 disorder (e.g., Major Depressive Disorder,Schizophrenia)1