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Dictionar de psihologie cognitiva

Dictionar de psihologie cognitiva

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Adaptation
In Piaget's Theory of Development, there are two cognitive processes that are crucial for progressing from stage tostage: assimilation, accommodation. These two concepts are described below.
Assimilation
This refers to the way in which a child transforms new information so that it makes sense within their existingknowledge base. That is, a child tries to understand new knowledge in terms of their existing knowledge. For example, a baby who is given a new knowledge may grasp or suck on that object in the same way that he or shegrasped or sucked other objects.
Accomodation
This happens when a child changes his or her cognitive structure in an attempt to understand new information. For example, the child learns to grasp a new object in a different way, or learns that the new object should not be sucked.In that way, the child has adapted his or her way of thinking to a new experience.Taken together, assimilation and accomodation make up adaptation, which refers to the child's ability to adapt to hisor her environment.
References:
 1.Siegler, R. (1991).
Children's thinking.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.2.Vasta, R., Haith, M. M., & Miller, S. A. (1995).
Child psychology: The modern science.
New York, NY:Wiley.
Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a term coined by Alois Alzheimer in 1907, is a relentlessly progressive diseasecharacterized by cognitive decline, behavioural disturbances, and changes in personality. Current estimates of  prevalence of AD in Canada suggest that 5.1% of all Canadians 65 and over meet the criteria for the clinicaldiagnosis of AD, which translates into approximately 161,000 cases. AD prevalence is slightly higher in womenthan in men. It may be that this difference is due to the longer life expectancy of women although other factors havenot been ruled out. The prevalence of dementia is strongly associated with age, affecting 1% of the Canadian population aged 65 to 74, 6.9% of individuals 75-84 and 26% of individuals 85 years and older (Canadian Study of Health and Aging, 1994).The diagnostic criteria for dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT) are as follows:
(A) The development of multiple cognitive deficits manifested by both:3.Memory impairment (impaired ability to learn new information or to recall previously learnedinformation)4.One or more of the following cognitive disturbances:
aphasia (language disturbance)
apraxia (impaired ability to carry out motor activities despite intact motor function)
agnosia (failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory function)
disturbances in executive functioning (i.e., planning, organizing, sequencing, abstracting)
(B) The cognitive deficits in Criteria A1 and A2 each cause significant impairment in social andoccupational functioning and represent a significant decline from a previous level of functioning.
(C) The course is characterized by gradual onset and continuing cognitive decline
(D) The cognitive deficits in Criteria A1 and A2 are not due to any of the following:1.other central nervous system conditions that cause progressive deficits in memory and cognition(e.g., cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, subdural hematoma,normal pressure hydrocephalus, brain tumor).2.systemic conditions that are known to cause a dementia (e.g., hypothyroidism, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency, hypercalcemia, neurosyphilis, HIV infection)3.substance-induced conditions
(E) The deficits do not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium
(F) The disturbance is not better accounted for by another Axis 1 disorder (e.g., Major Depressive Disorder,Schizophrenia)1
 
The diagnosis of AD is based on exclusionary criteria (i.e., the absence of an identifiable cause) with diagnosisconfirmed at autopsy. Treatment strategies to date have been largely ineffective, with experimental treatmentsmainly directed toward overcoming the cholinergic deficit.
References:
 1.American Psychiatric Association (1994).
 Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(4th ed.).Washington, DC: Author.2.Canadian study of health and aging: Study methods and prevalence of dementia. (1994).
Canadian Medical  Association Journal 
,
150
(6).3.Whitehouse, P.J. (1993)
 Dementia
. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.
Analogy
In cognitive psychology, analogy is considered an important method of problem solving. The problem solver attempts to use his or her knolwedge of one problem to solve another problem about which she or he has very littleor no information. Barsalou (1992) provides the following example of problem solving by analogy:
"...someone who has worked at the complex for a while could simply explain toyou that the layout is analogous to a starfish. On hearing this analogy youmight transfer knowledge about starfish to the office complex. Thus theknowledge that a starfish has a circular body, with five legs extending fromit radially and symetrically would lead to the belief that the office complexcontains a center circular body, with five tapered buildings extending fromit in a radially symmetric pattern." (p.110)
Obviously people do not use all of their knowledge about one problem to solve another problem. In the context of his starfish example Barsalou points out that we would not begin to think that the office complex is alive, or that itlives underwater.One problem facing cogntive psychologists is to determine how people decide upon the extent to which an analogyapplies. Determining how this may be done is more difficult than it may seem. Consider that, given enough time people can find analogies between any two phenomena. We might want to say that, like the starfish, the officecomplex is alive--its heating ducts are like blood vessels, its doors are like mouths eating the people who enter theoffice complex every day. As a cognitive process analogy seems limitless. In a science that strives for regularity andlawfulness the limitlessness of analogical thinking poses a serious problem.
References:
 5.Barsalou, L. (1992).
Cognitive psychology: An overview for cognitive psychologists
. Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Apparent Motion
This is a perceptual phenomenon that occurs when we perceive motion in two or more static images that are presented in succession with appropriate spatial and temporal displacements. The ability to perceive this phenomenon is mediated by the visuospatial pathway of the visual association regions of the brain.We see examples of this phenomenon almost everyday when we view television or movies.This is an example of a
cognitively impenetrable
perception. That is, even though we know that the images are notmoving, we still perceive motion.
References:
 6.Marr, D. (1982).
Vision
. Freeman: San Francisco, pp.159-182.7.Zeki, S. (1992). The visual image in mind & brain.
Scientific American
,
241
(3), 150-162.
Articulatory Loop
The articulatory loop (AL) is one of two passive slave systems within Baddeley's (1986) tripartite model of workingmemory. The AL, responsible for storing speech based information, is comprised of two components. The firstcomponent is a phonological memory store which can hold traces of acoustic or speech based material. Material in2
 
this short term store lasts about two seconds unless it is maintained through the use of the second subcomponent,articulatory subvocal rehearsal. Prevention of articulatory rehearsal results in very rapid forgetting. Try thisexperiment with a friend. Present your friend with three consonants (e.g., C-X-Q) and ask them to recall theconsonants after a 10 second delay. During the 10 second interval, prevent your friend from rehearsing theconsonants by having them count 'backwards by threes' starting at 100. You will find that your friend's recall issignificantly impaired! See Murdoch (1961) and Baddeley (1986) for a complete review.
References:
 8.Baddeley, A. (1986).
Working memory
. Oxford: Clarendon Press.9.Murdock, B.B. Jr. (1961). The retention of individual items.
 Journal of Experimental Psychology
,
62
, 618-625.
See Also:
Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence is concerned with the attempt to develop complex computer programs that will be capable of  performing difficult cognitive tasks. Some of those who work in artificial intelligence are relatively unconcerned asto whether the programs they devise mimic human cognitive functioning, while others have the explicit goal of simulating human cognition on the computer.The artificial intelligence approach has been applied to several different areas within cognitive psychology,including perception, memory, imagery, thinking, and problem solving.There are a number of advantages of the artificial intelligence approach to cognition. Computer programmingrequires that every process be specified in detail, unlike cognitive psychology which often relies on vaguedescriptions. AI also tends to be highly theoretical, which leads to general theoretical orientations having wideapplicability. The main disadvantage of AI is that there is a lot of controversy about the ultimate similarity betweenhuman cognitive functioning and computer functioning.Some of the major differences between brains and computers were spelled out in the following terms by Churchland(1989, p.100):
"The brain seems to be a computer with a radically different style.For example, the brain changes as it learns, it appears to store and processinformation in the same places...Most obviously, the brain is a parallelmachine, in which many interactions occur at the same time in many differentchannels."
This contrasts with most computer functions which involves serial processing and relatively few interactions.
References:
 10.Churchland, P.S. (1989). From Descartes to neural networks.
Scientific American
,
 July
, 100.11.Eysenck, M.W. (Ed.). (1990).
The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology.
Cambridge, MA: BasilBlackwell.
See Also:
Associative Memory
At its simplest, an associative memory is a system which stores mappings of specific input representations tospecific output representations. That is to say, a system that "associates" two patterns such that when one isencountered subsequently, the other can be reliably recalled. Kohonen draws an analogy between associativememory and an adaptive filter function [2]. The filter can be viewed as taking an ordered set of input signals, andtransforming them into another set of signals---the output of the filter. It is the notion of adaptation, allowing itsinternal structure to be altered by the transmitted signals, which introduces the concept of memory to the system.A further refinement in terminology is possible with regard to the associative memory concept, and is ubiquitous inconnectionist (neural network) literature in particular. A memory that reproduces its input pattern as output isreferred to as
autoassociative
(i.e. associating patterns with themselves). One that produces output patternsdissimilar to its inputs is termed
heteroassociative
(i.e. associating patterns with other patterns).Most associative memory implementations are realized as connectionist networks. Hopfield's collective computationnetwork [1] serves as an excellent example of an autoassociative memory, whereas Rosenblatt's perceptron [3] is3

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