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Lasers

Lasers

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Published by: prashanth68760 on May 02, 2010
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11/07/2012

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CHAPTER-II
LASERS
(Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) STRUCTURE:4.2.1)INTRODUCTIONOBJEVTIVES4.2.2)CHARACTERISTICS OF LASER BEAM4.2.3)ATTENUATION OF LIGHT IN OPTICAL MEDIUM4.2.4)POPULATION4.2.5)STIMULATED ABSORPTION4.2.6)POPULATION INVERSION AND ACTIVE SYSTEM4.2.7)EMISSION
4.2.8)
SPONTANEOUS EMISSION4.2.9) STIMULATED EMISSION4.2.10) LASING ACTION4.2.11) PUMPING4.2.12) OPTICAL PUMPING4.2.13) TYPES OF LASERSA) RUBY LASER B) He-Ne LASER C) SEMICONDUCTOR LASER 4.2.14) APPLICATIONS OF LASERS4.2.15) SUMMARY
 
4.2.1) INTRODUCTION:
L
aser is one of the outstanding inventtion of the 20
th
century . Laser is a photonic device, which isresponsible for the new birth of new field, namely photonics. In interference of light we use theterm coherence between two sources of light. The two sources are coherent when they vibrate insame phase or there is a constant phase difference. In recent years some sources are developedwhich are highly coherent, i.e.
 
the radiation gives out by all the emitters in the source is in mutualagreement not only in phase but also in direction of emission and in polarization. These coherentsources are called lasers. LASER stands for
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
 Though it is a light source of light,lasers differ vastly from the traditional light sources. It is not used for illumination purposesand is used for radio wave and microwave transmitters and produce a highly directional coherentmonochromatic beam . laser is a tool in metal working , entertainment electronics, opticalcommunications, bloodless surgery weapon guidance in wars and in a wide verity of other fields.The first successful laser was built by T.H.Maiman in 1960 . laser is a device to produce a powerfulmonochromatic light of beam in which the waves are coherent. The beam emerges as a narrowbeam which can travel over long distances without much loss of energy.
OBJECTIVES:
After studying this chapter you should able to: know
About the features of lasers.
About the special characteristics of lasers.
About absorption, spontaneous emission, stimulated emission and population inversion.
About different types of lasers like solid state laser, gas laser, and semiconductor laser.
The applications of lasers in different fields.
4.2.2) SPECIAL CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF LASER BEAM
:
 
The most outstanding characteristics of the laser beam are its high degree of directionality ,monochromaticity , coherence and brightness.
Directionality:
the laser beam is highly directional. ex: a laser beam 10cm in diameter whenbeamed at Moon’s surface.3,84,000km away is more than 5km wide. The laser beam spreadis less than 0.01mm for a distance of 1m.
Monochromaticity:
a laser produces light in more or single wavelength i.e. the line widthassociated with laser beams are extremely narrow.
 
Coherence:
a laser beam is spatially and temporally coherent to an extraordinary degre 
Temporal coherence:
it refers to relative phase or coherence of the two waves attwo separate locations along the propagation direction of two beams.
Spatial coherence:
it referred to transverse coherence. it is possible to observeinterference effect from two independent laser beams.
Brightness:
the laser beam is highly intense as compared to ordinary sources of light. It canbe used for such operations as weding which involve reaching high temperatures.
4.2.3)ATTENUATION OF LIGHT IN OPTICAL MEDIUM:
When light travels through a medium , a gradual reduction in its intensity occursmainly because of the process of absorption of light and scattering of light in the medium.
1.
Light absorption occurs because part of incident light is transformed into the energy of motion of atoms in the medium.
2.
Light is scattered when it encounters obstacles of sizes smaller than a wavelength.The reduction in intensity with distance in medium is called attenuation of length.Fig:

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