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Smu Assignment Semester – 1

Smu Assignment Semester – 1

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Smu Assignment Semester – 1 Organization Behavior Solved Assignment
Smu Assignment Semester – 1 Organization Behavior Solved Assignment

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Published by: srgondhalekar on May 02, 2010
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Q.1 Write a note on the characteristics of Management.
“Management” is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of differentresources.According to George R. Terry, “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning,organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish theobjectives by the use of people and resources.”Management is a distinct activity having the following characteristics:
1.
 
Goal-oriented:
 Management is a purposeful activity. It co-ordinates the efforts of employees to achievethe goals of the organization. The success of management is measured by the extent towhich the organizational goals are achieved. It is imperative that the organizational goalsmust be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels.
2.
 
Economic Resource:
 Management is one of the factors of production together with land, labour and capital. Itis the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. It is the forcewhich assembles and integrates other resources, namely, labour, capital and materials.These factors do not by themselves ensure production; they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. Thus, management isan essential ingredient of an organization.
3.
 
Distinct Process:
 Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning, organizing,staffing, directing and controlling. These functions are so interwoven that it is notpossible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relativesignificance. In essence, the process of management involves decision-making andputting of decisions into practice.
4.
 
Integrative Force:
 The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve thedesired objectives. All these resources are made available to those who manage.Managers apply knowledge, experience and management principles for getting the resultsfrom the workers by the use of non-human resources. Managers also seek to harmonizethe individuals’ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of theorganization.
5.
 
Intangible Force:
 Management has been called an unseen force. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness, informed employees, buoyant spirit and adequate work output.Thus, feeling of management is result-oriented. One may not see with the naked eyes thefunctioning of management but its results are apparently known. People often remark of 
 
 the effectiveness of management on the basis of the end results, although they can’tobserve it during operation.
6.
 
Results through Others:
 The managers cannot do everything themselves. They must have the necessary abilityand skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. They must motivate thesubordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them.
7.
 
A Science and an Art:
 Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of well-defined concepts,principles and techniques which have wide applications. So it is treated as a science. Theapplication of these concepts, principles and techniques requires specialized knowledgeand skills on the part of the manager. Since the skills acquired by a manager are hispersonal possession, management is viewed as an art.
8.
 
System of Authority:
 Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority, a hierarchy of command and control. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority.Generally, as we move down in the managerial hierarchy, the degree of authority getsgradually reduced. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively.
9.
 
Multi-disciplinary Subject:
 Management has grown as a field of study taking the help of so many other disciplinessuch as Engineering, Anthropology, Sociology and Psychology. Much of themanagement literature is the result of association of these disciplines. For instance,productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and humanrelations orientation from Psychology. Similarly, Sociology and Operations Researchhave also contributed to the development of management science.
10. Universal Application:
 Management is universal in character. The principles and techniques of management areequally applicable in the fields of business, education, military, government and hospital.Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in everysituation. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated.
Q.2 Discuss intellectual abilities in detail.
Intellectual abilities are those required to perform mental activities.IQ tests are designed to ascertain one’s general intellectual abilities. IQ tests are designedto ascertain one’s general intellectual abilities. The seven most popular dimensionsmaking up intellectual abilities are categorized in the following table:
 
 Jobs differ in the demands they place on incumbents to use their intellectual abilities. Areview of the evidence demonstrates that tests that assess verbal, numerical, spatial, andperceptual abilities are valid predictors of job proficiency at all levels of jobs.The theory of multiple intelligences by Gardner suggests eight different intelligences toaccount for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. It has been claimedthat our intelligence or ability to understand the world around us is complex. Somepeople are better at understanding some things than others. For some, it is relatively easyto understand how an automobile works, but it is immensely difficult for some tounderstand and use a musical instrument. For others music might be easy but playingfootball is difficult. The eight different intelligences are:1. Linguistic intelligence ("word smart"):2. Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart")3. Spatial intelligence ("picture smart")4. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart")5. Musical intelligence ("music smart")6. Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart")7. Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart")8. Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart")
The advantages of IQ tests are:
 
 
They are highly reliable and their validity rises with increasing complexity of the job.
 
Verbal reasoning and numerical tests have shown high validity for a wide rangeof jobs.
 
Combinations of aptitude tests have higher validities than individual tests aloneand they are of lower cost than personality tests.
 
May be administered in group settings where many applicants can be tested at thesame time.
 
Scoring of the tests may be completed by computer scanning equipment.

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