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Engineering materials

Engineering materials

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Published by: adersh2000 on May 02, 2010
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12/10/2012

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1
GINEERING MATERIALS &METALLURGY
UNIT IV
 
2
PolymersINTRODUCTION
POLYMER: Another word for a plastic material: one which has been made from chains of molecules of one or more MONOMERS. Polymers (plastics) are ORGANIC substances of highMOLECULAR WEIGHT, made from hundreds or thousands of molecules linked together in arepeating chain pattern (also known as macromolecules).THERMOPLASTIC:A plastic material which, when softened in a mould under heat and pressure, forms a shapewhich can be re softened and re moulded, e.g.: polythene, acrylic, PVC, and nylon.THERMOSET:A plastic which under heat and pressure polymerises into a form which cannot be re softened dueto CROSSLINKING of the molecules. It is therefore used for components such as light fittings,saucepan handles and ashtrays.ELASTOMERS:More commonly known as rubber, can be defined as any material which after vulcanisation canbe extended to several times it’s original length and return to it’s original length when the forceis removed.ADDITIVES:Plastics used in moulding processes are normally in powder or small chips known as granules.Before being moulded into shape they need to be mixed with additives. These come in the formsof: Fillers, Stabilisers, Plasticizers, Lubricants, Antioxidants, Flame retardants, Colorants.COMMON PROCESSES USING PLASTICS:MOULDING:The most common method for forming thermosetting resins such as BAKELITE into ashtrays,radios etc. The moulding powder, usually with a filler is placed in the lower ' female ' part of atwo part mould. The top part closed on to it, heat and pressure are applied, the plastic flowsaround the mould and the final moulding is ejected.EXTRUSION:Process similar to making spaghetti for moulding plastics into continuous lengths of pipes, rodsand profiles. The softened material is forced through a shaped DIE.INJECTION MOULDING:The most widely used high speed process for mass producing plastic articles. Granules areheated and forced under pressure into a mould, which can be single cavity for a bucket or chair,or multi cavity for combs and other small objects.
 
3THERMOFORMING/VACCUM FORMING:The shaping of heat softened thermoplastic sheet through heat and/ or vacuum.
POLYMERS.
v
Polymers consist of large molecules that are made up of smaller repeating units, ormonomers.
v
Polymers containing only one type of monomer are known as
HOMOPOLYMERS,
v
Polymers combining more than one type of monomer are known as
COPOLYMERS.
v
Two general methods exist for forming large molecules from small monomers: additionpolymerization and condensation polymerization.
v
In the chemical process called addition polymerization, monomers join together withoutthe loss of atoms from the molecules.
v
Some examples of addition polymers are polyethylene, polypropylene, polyphenylethene,polyethenyl ethanoate, and polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon).
v
A new method of addition polymerization called group transfer polymerization wasannounced.
v
An activating group within the molecule initiating the process transfers to the end of thegrowing polymer chain as individual monomers insert themselves in the group.
v
The method has been used for acrylic plastics; it should prove applicable to other plasticsas well.
CONDENSATION POLYMERS:
THERMOSETTING PLASTICS
Ø
Thermosetting plastics are plastics that cannot be remelted once they have hardened.
Ø
Compression moulding forms thermosetting plastic objects in a steel mould.
Ø
When heat and pressure are applied, the softened plastic squeezes into all parts of themould to form the desired shape.
Ø
Laminating binds layers of materials together in a plastic matrix. The layers are fusedwhen heated plates melt the plastic and squeeze the material together
Ø
This involves the elimination of water molecules during the linking up of the constituent,this usually form thermosetting plastics in most cases organic acids are made to reactwith alcohol to produce ester and water, the elimination of that water complete theprocess this is usually cure by heating the resin or treating it with thermosetting agents.
Ø
In condensation polymerization the repeat unit is related to the two substances formingthe polymer
R
1
COOH + R
2
OH – R
1
COOR
2
+ H
2
O
A - A - A - A
The repeat unit is the same through out the chain, the product is known as
HOMO-Polymer,

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