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Pipe Sizes and Materials

Pipe Sizes and Materials

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 © 1996 Bechtel Corp.Piping/Mechanical Handbook5-1
Section 5 
Pipe Sizes and Materials 
STANDARD PIPING SIZES
Piping is divided into three major categories:
LARGE BORE PIPE
generally includes piping which is greater than two inches in diameter
SMALL BORE PIPE
generally includes piping which is two inches and smaller in diameter
TUBING
is supplied in sizes up to four inches in diameter but has a wall thickness less thanthat of either large bore or small bore piping and is typically joined by compression fittingsThe term diameter for piping sizes is identified by nominal size. The manufacture of nominalsizes of
1
 / 
8
inch through 12 inches inclusive is based on a standardized outside diameter (OD).This OD was originally selected so that pipe with a standard wall thickness will have the insidediameter (ID) of the size stated. The 14 inch and larger sizes have the OD equal to the nominalpipe size. Pipe sizes
3
 / 
8
inch, 1
1
 / 
4
inches, 3
1
 / 
2
inches, 4
1
 / 
2
inches, and 5 inches are consideredto be nonstandard and should not be used except to connect to equipment having these sizes. Inthese cases the line is normally increased to a standard size as soon as it leaves the equipment.Tubing is sized to the outside diameter for all applications and pressure rating is dependent onvarying wall thicknesses. Refer to industry handbooks for more information.
Schedule (Wall Thickness)
Pipes are manufactured in a multitude of wall thicknesses, these have been standardized so thata series of specific thicknesses applies to each size of piping. Each thickness is designated by aschedule number or descriptive classification, rather than the actual wall thickness. The originalthicknesses were referred to as standard (STD), extra strong (XS), and double extra strong(XXS). These designations or weight classes have now either been replaced or supplemented byschedule numbers in most cases.Schedules begin with 5 and 5S, followed by 10 and 10S, then progress in increments of tenthrough Schedule 40 (20, 30, 40) and finally by increments of twenty to Schedule 160 (60, 80,100, 120, 140, 160). Wall thickness for schedule 40 and STD are the same for sizes
1
 / 
8
to 10inches. Schedule 80 and XS also have the same wall thickness for
1
 / 
8
inch through 8 inchdiameter pipe.Schedules 5 and 10 are generally used for stainless steel piping. Even though it is available inschedules allowing thinner walls, schedule 80 is generally the minimum size used for 2 inch andsmaller carbon steel piping. This may result in pipe that is stronger than needed, but the greatermechanical strength of schedule 80 pipe is required where threaded connections are used. Theextra wall thickness also allows for longer spans between supports.
Length
Pipe is usually supplied in random lengths. The shortest, longest, and average length may varyfor piping of different materials, sizes, and wall thickness schedules. Typically an average lengthof 20 feet is used for carbon steel pipe, but double random lengths are available from mostsuppliers and is generally preferred, especially for rack installations.
 
Section 5Pipe Sizes and Materials
5-2Piping/Mechanical Handbook1996:Rev.2
Pipe ends
Pipe may be obtained with plain, beveled, or threaded ends. Plain ends (PE) are cut square andreamed to remove burrs. This type of end is needed when being joined by mechanical couplings,socket weld fittings, or slip-on flanges. Beveled ends (BE) are required for most butt-weldapplications. Threaded ends (TE) are used with screwed joints and are ordered noting threadson both ends or one end (TBE or TOE).
NOTE:
Electrical conduit dies cannot be used to cut pipe threads since this type of threadedconnection will typically fail the piping pressure test. The electrical conduit threads are straightversus tapered for piping.
STANDARD PIPING MATERIALSCarbon Steel Pipe
Carbon Steel is one of the most commonly used pipe materials. The specifications that covermost of the pipe used are published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Carbon Steel Material specificationASTM A106 is available in grades, A, B, and C. These grades refer to the tensile strength of thesteel, with grade C having the highest strength. Common practice is to manufacture the pipe asA106 Grade B.ASTM A53 is also commonly specified for galvanized or lined pipe or as an alternate to A106.The testing requirements for A53 are less stringent than for A106. Three types of carbon steelpipe are covered by A53. These are type E or electric resistance welded, type F or furnace-buttwelded, and type S or seamless. Type E and S are available in grade A and B, comparable togrades A and B of A106.
Stainless Steel Pipe
Austenitic Stainless Steel pipe commonly referred to as "stainless steel" is virtually non-magnetic.Stainless steel is manufactured in accordance with ASTM A312 when 8-inch or smaller sizes areneeded. There are eighteen different grades, of which type 304L is the most widely used. Grade316L has high resistance to chemical and salt water corrosion, and is therefore used inapplications where this characteristic is needed. The "L" denotes low carbon content and is bestsuited for welding. Larger sizes (8 inches and up) of stainless steel pipe are covered by ASTMA358. Extra light wall thickness (Schedule 5S) and light wall (Schedule 10S) stainless steel pipeis covered by ASTM A409.
Chrome-Moly Pipe
Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy Pipe is commonly referred to as "chrome-moly". Ten grades of thistype pipe material are covered by ASTM A335. Appropriate grades of chrome-moly pipe aresometimes used in power plants applications requiring good tensile property retention at hightemperatures, especially when the added corrosion resistance of stainless steel is not required.Chrome-moly pipe is used extensively in heat exchangers. Special care must be exercised whenfabricating or welding this material, since it must be annealed (stress relieved) after being joined.
 
Pipe Sizes and MaterialsSection 5
1996:Rev.2Piping/Mechanical Handbook5-3
Plastic Pipe
Thermoplastic Pipe is commonly referred to plastic pipe and is categorized into two principalgroups.
Thermoplastic pipe 
is available in a great variety of plastic compositions including:
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Polyethylene (PE)
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)
Polyamide (nylon)
PolypropyleneThermoplastic pipe is most commonly supplied in PVC material. It also comes in many gradeslike steel pipe. It can be obtained threaded or with plain ends for solvent (cement) or thermalwelding. Solvent welding joining is normally used. Some types also include the use of couplings.
Advantages
of this material it is very easy to install, and its light weight and socket joints make iteconomical for temporary services.
Disadvantages
are the temperature limitations and the support spacing required to preventsagging.
Thermosetting (Fiberglass) Pipe 
is made of a plastic that takes a permanent set or hardenswhen heated to the curing temperature in the mold. After this initial set the material cannot besoftened by heat or be thermally welded. The principal thermosetting plastic is made of fiberglassreinforced epoxy, the strongest is helically interweaved glass filaments under tension.Fiberglass pipe can be obtained in a great variety of sizes and wall schedule like steel pipe.There are three types of connection methods used to join fiberglass pipe:
Threaded ends for screwed joints
Plain for use with socket type fittings
Adhesive welded bell and spigot taper jointsThe adhesive consists of a plastic resin and a catalyst, which thermally set after being mixed andapplied as a joint filler material.
Concrete Pipe
Concrete Pipe is made from a mixture of portland cement, sand, gravel, and water. It ismanufactured as:
Plain (unreinforced)
Reinforced concrete pipe
Prestressed concrete pressure pipe

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