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arbint

arbint

Ratings: (0)|Views: 16 |Likes:
Published by M.M. El Hawary

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Published by: M.M. El Hawary on May 02, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/01/2013

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Switching
((
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Negative Resistance
.
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) \ue006\u0627\ue028\u0646\ue001\u0644 \ue01c\ue022\u0628\u0627\ue009 \u062a\u0627\ue00d\u0643\u0631\u0645 \u0629\ue022\ue005\ue009 \u0635\u0626\u0627\ue003\ue01f \ue027\u0644\u0625 \u0629\u0633\ue000\ue00c\u062f\u0644\u0627\u0628

Ge-Te-Se
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1.25
.\ue03a\ue00e\u0642\ue015\ue026\ue000 \ue00c\u0627\u064a\ue009 (
\ue00c\u0627\ue005\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue016\ue01f\ue000\ue01d \ue01a\ue00c\ue000\u0631\u062d\u0644\ue000 \u062a\u0627\ue012\ue00c\ue01d \ue033\u0627\u064a\u0642\u0644 \u0629\u064a\ue00f\ue008\ue018 \u062a\ue026\ue01d\u0627\ue022\u0645 \ue03f\u0631\ue029 \ue02c\ue009 \ue037\u0644\u0630\u0643
) \u0649\u0628\u0631\ue010\ue020\u0644\ue000
\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640
) \ue02c\u064a\ue025 \ue034\ue043\u0641 \ue019\ue00d\u0637\u0644\u0627\u0628\ue018 \u062f\ue010\u062c\u0644\ue000\ue018 \ue00c\u0627\u064a\ue017\ue001\u0644 \ue02c\u064a\ue025 \ue035\u0623 \u062f\u0646\u0639 \u062a\u0627\u0646\u064a\ue022\u0644\ue000 \u0649\u0641 (
Tf
) \ue033\u0627\u064a\u0642\u0644\ue000 \ue01a\ue00c\ue000\u0631\ue024 \u062a\u0627\ue012\ue00c\ue01d \ue02c\u064a\ue025 \ue013\u0645 \u0631\ue00d\u0643\u0623 (
Ta
\ue03e\u0626\u0627\ue017\u0646\u0644\ue000 \ue016\u064a\ue001\u062d\ue009 \ue02c\ue009 \u062f\u0642\u0641 \ue037\u0644\u0630\u0644\ue018 (
\ue00c\u0627\ue005\ue004\ue001\u0644 \u0629\u064a\ue001\ue022\ue00f\u0644\ue000 \ue01a\ue00c\ue000\u0631\u062d\u0644\ue000 \ue007\ue012\ue00c\ue01d \ue02c\u064a\u0642\u0644 \u0629\u0644\ue000\u062f\u0643 \u0629\ue00f\ue001\ue017\u062e\ue004\u0644\ue000 \u0635\u0626\u0627\ue003\u062e\u0644\ue000 \ue02c\u0633\u0631\u0628
.\ue033\u0627\u064a\u0642\u0644\ue000 \ue01a\ue00c\ue000\u0631\ue024 \u062a\u0627\ue012\ue00c\ue01d \ue019\u0645 \ue032\u064a\u0644\ue018
\ue019\u0645 \u062f\ue010\ue012 \u2013 \ue00c\u0627\u064a\ue009 \u062a\u0627\u064a\u0646\u062d\u0646\ue004\u0644 \u0629\u064a\ue001\ue004\ue022\u0644\ue000 \ue03e\u0626\u0627\ue017\u0646\u0644\ue000 \ue021\ue00e\ue017\ue01f\ue000 \u0631\u064a\ue005\ue00f\ue009 \ue013\ue020\u0645\u0623 \ue037\u0644\u0630\u0643
) \u062f\u0646\u0639 \ue01c\ue015\u0623 \ue033\u0627\u0633\u0623 \u0649\ue001\u0639 \u0629\u0642\u0628\u0627\ue005\u0644\ue000 \u062a\ue026\ue01d\u0627\ue022\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue006\ue000\u062f\u062e\ue017\u0633\u0627\u0628 \u0629\u0628\u0648\ue005\u062d\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue035\u0631\ue01f\ue02e\ue000
1n
> 1.25
\ue035\ue00c\u0648\ue001\ue00d\u0644\ue000 \ue040\u064a\u0643\u0631\ue017\u0644\ue000 \u0649\u0641 \u062a\ue000\u0631\u064a\ue02d\ue009 \u062b\ue000\u062f\ue024\ue02e \u0629\u064a\u0641\u0627\u0643 \ue01a\ue00c\ue000\u0631\u062d\u0644\ue000 \u062a\u0627\ue012\ue00c\ue01d \ue034\u0648\ue020\ue009 (
) \ue02c\u064a\ue025 \u062f\u0646\u0639 \ue016\u0645\u0627\u0643 \ue00c\u0648\ue001\ue001\ue00d\ue017\u0628 \u0649\ue010\ue017\u0646\ue009 \u0649\u062c\ue00b\ue00c\u062f\ue009 \ue00c\u0648\ue001\ue001\ue00d\ue009 \u0629\u064a\ue001\ue004\u0639 \u0623\u062f\ue00d\ue009 \ue041\u064a\ue024 \ue01d\ue000\u0648\ue004\ue001\u0644
Ic,Vc
\u0649\u0644\u0625 \u0629\u064a\u0641\ue00c\u0648\u0645\ue02e\ue000 \u0629\u0644\u0627\u062d\u0644\ue000 \ue013\u0645 \ue01c\u064a\ue001\u0643 \u0649\u0628\u0631\ue010\ue020\u0644\ue000 \ue00c\u0627\ue005\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue002\u0648\u062d\ue017\ue00b \u0627\ue01b\u062f\ue022\u0628 (
\u0629\u064a\ue001\u0636\u0627\ue00f\ue017\u0644\ue000 \u0629\u0645\ue018\u0627\u0642\ue004\u0644\ue000 \u0629\u0644\u0627\ue024 \ue013\u0645 \ue01a\ue01d\u0627\ue004\u0644\ue000 \u0649\u0641 \u0629\u0644\u0627\u062d\u0644\ue000 \u0631\u064a\ue02d\ue017\ue009 \ue035\u0623 \u0629\ue00b\ue00c\u0648\ue001\ue001\ue00d\u0644\ue000 \u0629\u0644\u0627\u062d\u0644\ue000
) \u0629\ue00d\u0644\u0627\ue005\u0644\ue000
N.R.S
) \ue016\u0645\u0627\ue020\u0644\ue000 \ue016\u064a\ue008\u0648\ue017\u0644\ue000 \u0629\u0644\u0627\ue024 \u0649\u0644\u0625 (
ON \u2013 State
.(

\u0629\ue022\ue005\ue017\u0644\ue000 \u062a\u0627\u0646\u064a\ue022\ue001\u0644 \ue00c\u0627\u064a\ue009 \u2013 \u062f\ue010\ue012 \u062a\u0627\u064a\u0646\u062d\u0646\ue004\u0628 \u0629\u0642\ue001\ue022\ue017\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue03e\u0626\u0627\ue017\u0646\u0644\ue000 \ue016\u0643 \ue016\u064a\ue001\u062d\ue017\u0628\ue018
\u0621\u0627\u0646\ue036\u0623 \ue016\u064a\ue008\u0648\ue017\u0644\ue000 \ue006\u0632\u064a\ue015\u0627\ue020\u064a\u0645 \u0649\ue001\u0639 \ue021\u0631\ue022\ue017\u0644\ue000 \ue02c\ue009 \u0627\ue010\u064a\u0644\u0625 \ue00c\u0627\ue02a\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue021\ue018\u0631\ue028\u0644\ue000 \ue016\u0643 \u062f\u0646\u0639
\ue016\u064a\ue008\u0648\ue017\u0644\ue000 \u0629\u064a\ue001\ue004\u0639 \ue034\u0623 \ue007\ue00d\ue036 \u062f\ue025\ue018 \u0629\ue036\ue00e\ue023\u0644\ue000 \u062a\ue026\u0627\u062d\u0644\ue000 \u0649\u0641 \u062f\ue010\u062c\u0644\ue000 \u062a\u0627\u064a\u0646\u062d\u0646\u0645 \ue033\u0627\u064a\ue025

)\u0649\ue017\ue024
ln = 1.25
\ue006\u0632\u064a\ue015\u0627\ue020\u064a\ue004\u0644\u0627\u0628 \ue016\u064a\ue008\u0648\ue017\u0644\ue000 \u0631\ue036\ue031\ue017\ue00b \u0627\ue004\u0646\u064a\u0628 \u0649\ue015\ue018\u0631\ue017\ue020\u0644\ue026\ue000 \ue014\u0648\u0646\u0644\ue000 \ue013\u0645 \u0649\ue01b (
\ue034\ue031\u0628 " \ue002\u0648\u0642\ue009 \u0629\u0645\u0627\ue01b \u0629\u0642\u064a\u0642\ue024 \u0649\u0644\u0625 \ue016\ue008\u0648\ue017\u0644\ue000 \ue02c\ue009 \u0627\ue004\u0643 \u0629\u0637\u0642\u0646\u0644\ue000 \u0647\u0630\ue01b \u062f\ue022\u0628 \ue035\ue00c\ue000\u0631\u062d\u0644\ue000
) \u062f\ue010\u062c\u0644\ue000\ue018 \ue00c\u0627\u064a\ue017\ue001\u0644 \u0629\u0646\u064a\ue022\u0645 \ue02c\u064a\ue025 \u062f\ue022\u0628 \ue026\u0625 \u0647\u0631\u064a\ue036\ue031\ue009 \u0623\u062f\ue00d\ue00b \ue026 \u0649\u0628\u0631\ue010\ue020\u0644\ue000 \ue002\u0627\u062c\ue004\u0644\ue000
Io, Vo
(
\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640 \u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640
)
2
(
\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640\u0640
\u2013 \u062f\ue010\ue012 \u062a\u0627\u064a\u0646\u062d\u0646\u0645 \ue034\u0623 \ue035\u0623 \u0649\u0645\ue018\ue02e\ue000 \ue014\u0648\u0646\u0644\ue000 \ue013\u0645 \ue016\u064a\ue008\u0648\ue017\u0644\ue000 \ue034\u0648\ue020\ue00b \ue02c\u064a\u0642\u0644\ue000 \u0647\u0630\ue01b \ue016\ue00d\ue025
."\u0629\ue004\u064a\u0642\ue017\ue005\u0645 \ue039\u0648\u0637\ue01f \u0629\ue038\u064a\ue01b \u0649\ue001\u0639 \ue034\u0648\ue020\ue009 \ue00c\u0627\u064a\ue009
) \u0629\u0645\ue018\u0627\u0642\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue02c\u064a\ue025\ue018 \ue033\u0627\u064a\u0642\u0644\ue000 \ue01a\ue00c\ue000\u0631\ue024 \u062a\u0627\ue012\ue00c\ue01d \ue034\u0623 \ue007\ue00d\ue036 \ue037\u0644\u0630\u0643
RL
\u0629\ue001\ue008\u0648\ue004\u0644\ue000 (
\ue035\u0630\u0644\ue000 \ue035\u062f\ue004\u0644\ue000 \u0649\ue001\u0639 \ue044\u0636\ue000\ue018 \u0631\u064a\ue036\ue031\ue009 \u0627\ue004\ue010\u0644 \ue033\u0627\u064a\u0642\u0644\ue000 \u0621\u0627\u0646\ue036\u0623 \u062a\u0627\u0646\u064a\ue022\u0644\u0627\u0628 \u0649\u0644\ue000\u0648\ue017\u0644\ue000 \u0649\ue001\u0639
) \ue02c\u064a\ue025 \ue007\ue001\ue025 \u0627\ue004\ue001\u0643 \ue03b\u0625 \u0629\ue00d\u0644\u0627\ue005\u0644\ue000 \u0629\u0645\ue018\u0627\u0642\ue004\u0644 \u0629\u0644\u0627\ue024 \u0649\u0641 \ue01a\ue01d\u0627\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue01c\ue02a\u064a\ue022\ue009
RL
\ue01d\ue000\ue045 \u0627\ue004\ue001\u0643 (
\ue034\ue043\u0641 \ue037\u0644\u0630\u0643 \u0649\u0644\u0648\u062c\u0644\ue000 \ue013\u064a\u062e\ue005\ue017\u0644\ue000 \ue02c\u064a\ue025 \ue01d\ue000\ue01d\u0632\ue009 \ue037\u0644\u0630\u0644 \u0627
\u064b\ue022\ue00d\ue009\ue018 \ue01a\u0631\u0626\ue000\u062f\u0644\ue000 \u0649\u0641 \ue00c\u0627\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue00c\u0627\u064a\ue017\u0644\ue000
.\u0647\ue00c\ue000\u0631\u0645\ue043\u0628 \ue03f\u0648\ue004\ue005\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue00c\u0627\u064a\ue017\u0644\ue000 \ue01a\ue01d\u0627\ue00b\ue045 \u0649\u0644\u0625 \ue035\ue01d\u0624\ue009 \ue033\u0627\u064a\u0642\u0644\ue000 \ue01a\ue00c\ue000\u0631\ue024 \u062a\u0627\ue012\ue00c\ue01d \ue01a\ue01d\u0627\ue00b\ue045
) \u0629\u064a\u0628\u0631\ue010\ue020\u0644\ue000 \u062a\u0627\ue025\u0627\u0637\u0644\ue000 \ue02c\u064a\ue025 \ue03a\u0627\ue005\ue024 \ue02c\ue009 \ue037\u0644\u0630\u0643
Pth
\u0649\u0644\u0625 \ue002\u0648\ue008\u0648\ue001\u0644 \u0629\u0645\ue045\ue00e\u0644\ue000 (
\ue013\u0645 \ue016\u0643 \u0649\ue001\u0639 \ue02c\u064a\u0642\u0644\ue000 \u0647\u0630\ue01b \ue01d\u0627\ue004\ue017\u0639\ue000\ue018 .\u0629\ue00f\ue001\ue017\u062e\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue01d\ue000\u0648\ue004\u0644\ue000 \u0649\u0641 \ue03a\ue00e\u0642\ue015\ue026\ue000 \ue039\u0627\u0642\ue015
.\u0629\u0637\ue001\ue005\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue039\u0648\ue02d\ue030\u0644\ue000\ue018 \ue033\u0627\u064a\u0642\u0644\ue000 \ue01a\ue00c\ue000\u0631\ue024 \u062a\u0627\ue012\ue00c\ue01d\ue018 \u062a\u0627\u0646\u064a\ue022\u0644\ue000 \ue037\ue004\u0633
) \u0629\u064a\ue001\ue022\ue00f\u0644 \ue01a\ue00c\ue000\u0631\u062d\u0644\ue000 \u062a\u0627\ue012\ue00c\ue01d \ue01d\u0627\ue004\ue017\u0639\ue000 \u0629\u0633\ue000\ue00c\ue01d \ue02c\ue009 \ue037\u0644\u0630\u0643
Tf
\ue00c\u0627\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue016\ue01f\ue000\ue01d (
:\ue013\u0645 \ue016\u0643 \u0649\ue001\u0639 \u0629\ue00f\ue001\ue017\u062e\ue004\u0644\ue000 \u062a\u0627\u0646\u064a\ue022\ue001\u0644 \u0649\u0628\u0631\ue010\ue020\u0644\ue000

.\ue033\u0627\u064a\u0642\u0644\ue000 \ue01a\ue00c\ue000\u0631\ue024 \u062a\u0627\ue012\ue00c\ue01d ( \u0623
.\u062a\u0627\u0646\u064a\ue022\u0644\ue000 \u0649\u0641 \ue00c\u0627\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue00c\u0627\u064a\ue017\u0644\ue000 (\ue03a
.\u0647\u0648\u062c\ue00f\u0644\ue000 \u062a\u0627\ue025\u0627\ue029 \ue02c\u064a\ue025 \ue019\u0645 \ue040\u0633\u0627\u0646\ue017\ue009 \u0649\ue017\u0644\ue000 \ue03d\u064a\ue02a\u0646\ue017\u0644\ue000 \u062a\u0627\ue025\u0627\ue029 \ue02c\u064a\ue025 (\ue011

) \ue013\u0645 \ue016\u0643 \ue019\u0645 \u0627
\u064b\ue00b\ue01d\u0631\ue029 \ue01d\ue000\ue01d\u0632\ue009 \u0629\u064a\ue001\ue022\ue00f\u0644\ue000 \ue01a\ue00c\ue000\u0631\u062d\u0644\ue000 \u062a\u0627\ue012\ue00c\ue01d \ue034\u0623 \ue013\u0645 \ue02c\u063a\u0631\u0644\u0627\u0628\ue018
I&
Ta
) \ue03d\u064a\ue02a\u0646\ue017\u0644\ue000 \u062a\u0627\ue025\u0627\ue029 \ue02c\u064a\ue025 \u0649\u0641 \u0631\u064a\ue02d\ue009 \ue035\ue02e \u0629\u064a\u0633\u0627\ue005\u062d\u0644\ue000 \ue01a\u062f\ue00b\u062f\u0634 \u0627\ue010\ue015\u0623 \ue026\u0625 (
E
(
) \ue013\u064a\u0628 \ue01d\u0627\ue004\ue017\u0639\ue026\ue000 \ue034\ue043\u0641 \u0629\u0644\u0627\u062d\u0644\ue000 \u0647\u0630\ue01b \u0649\u0641\ue018
Tf & E
.\u0649\u0633\ue02e\ue000 \ue014\u0648\u0646\u0644\ue000 \ue013\u0645 \u0648\ue01b (
) \u0629\ue00b\ue018\ue000\u0632\ue001\u0644 \ue02c\u064a\ue025 \ue03a\u0627\ue005\ue024 \ue02c\ue009 \u0629\u064a\u0628\u0631\ue010\ue020\u0644\ue000 \ue03a\u0627\u0637\ue025\ue02e\ue000 \u062a\u0627\u064a\u0626\u0627\u0646\ue036 \ue011\ue03b\u0648\ue004\ue015 \ue006\ue000\u062f\u062e\ue017\u0633\u0627\u0628\ue0180
) \ue035\ue018\u0627\ue005\ue009 \u0627\ue010\ue015\u0623 \u062f\ue012\ue018\ue018 (
49.6
\u0629\u064a\u0644\u0627\ue022\u0644\ue000 \u0629\u0644\u0627\u062d\u0644\ue000 \ue013\u0645 \ue03a\ue00e\u0642\ue015\ue026\ue000 \ue02c\ue017\ue00b \u0627\ue01b\u062f\u0646\u0639 \u0629\ue012\ue00c\ue01d (
.\u062a\u0627\u0646\u064a\ue022\u0644\ue000 \ue016\u0643 \u0649\u0641 \u0629\ue00d\u0644\u0627\ue005\u0644\ue000 \u0629\u064a\ue001\u0636\u0627\ue00f\ue017\u0644\ue000 \u0629\u0645\ue018\u0627\u0642\ue004\u0644\ue000 \u0629\u0644\u0627\ue024 \u0649\u0644\u0625 \u0629\u0645\ue018\u0627\u0642\ue004\u0644\ue000
\ue034\u0623 \u0649\ue001\u0639 \u062f\ue010\ue012 \u2013 \ue00c\u0627\u064a\ue009 \u062a\u0627\u064a\u0646\u062d\u0646\u0645 \u0649\ue001\u0639 \ue03d\ue02d\ue030\u0644\ue000 \u0631\u064a\ue036\ue031\ue009 \ue03e\u0626\u0627\ue017\ue015 \ue007\u0644\ue01d \ue037\u0644\u0630\u0643
\ue040\ue005\u062d\u0641 \u0649\u0628\u0631\ue010\ue020\u0644\ue000 \ue00c\u0627\ue005\ue004\u0644\ue000 \ue01a\ue00c\ue000\u0631\ue024 \u0629\ue012\ue00c\ue01d \u0649\u0641 \ue046\u064a\ue00f\ue029 \ue014\u0627\ue00f\ue009\ue00c\ue000 \ue040\ue00d\ue005\ue00b \ue026 \ue03d\ue02d\ue030\u0644\ue000
) \u0647\u0648\u062c\ue00f\u0644\ue000 \u062a\u0627\ue025\u0627\ue029 \ue02c\u064a\ue025 \u0649\ue001\u0639 \u0631\ue036\u0624\ue00b \ue01c\ue015\u0623 \ue02b\ue000\u0631\ue017\u0641\ue000 \ue02c\ue009 \ue016\u0628
E
\ue03f\ue000\u0631\ue017\ue025\ue026\ue000 \ue000\u0630\ue01b \u0649\u0646\ue00d\ue017\u0628\ue018 (
)
\u062a\u0627\u064a\u0646\u062d\u0646\ue004\u0644\ue000 \u062a\ue00e\u0645\u0627\ue022\u0645 \ue013\u064a\u0628 \u0629\ue025\ue00e\ue022\u0644\ue000 \ue02c\u0633\ue00c \ue02c\ue009
Vth, 1th, Rth, Pth
(
) \ue03a\u0627\ue005\ue024 \ue02c\ue009\ue018 .\ue039\u0648\ue02d\ue030\u0644\ue000 \ue02c\u064a\ue025\ue018
o = dE/dP
) \u0649\u0641 \u0631\u064a\ue02d\ue017\u0644\ue000 \ue013\u0639 \u0631\ue00d\ue022\ue009 \u0649\ue017\u0644\ue000 (
E
(
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