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Visual Memory

Visual Memory

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Published by: bcchingangbam on May 03, 2010
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06/03/2013

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The Physiology of the Senses
Transformations For Perception and Action
Lecture 12 – Memory
Tutis Vilis http://www.physpharm.fmd.uwo.ca/undergrad/sensesweb/
A few definitions.
Memory:
information that is stored (e.g. the memory of grandmother)or the structure that stores this information ( e.g. the strength of synapsesin in aparticular part of the brain )
Learning:
the storage process (e.g. what mediates a change in synaptic strength)
Remembering:
the retrieval of stored information
Types of Memory 
89+45
 
1. Short term / Working memory
 Characteristics:
 
A sort of scratch pad which allows fortemporary storage of information.eg: storing numbers when adding.
 
It involves tonic activity of neurons insuch areas as the frontal lobe.
2. Long Term
Two types of long term memory areprocedural and declarative.
2.1 Procedural (knowing how)
Characteristics:
 
includes skills such as skiing
 
established slowly by practice
 
one is not conscious of rememberingthe skill
 
starts to develop at birth
 
is not affected in amnesia
 
occurs in much of the CNS, forexample, the tuning of binocular V1cells during the critical period forstereopsis and in the cerebellum andmotor cortex for motor skills.L12 - 1
 
 
2.2 Declarative (knowing that)
Characteristics:
 
representations of objects and eventse.g. face of a friend
 
involves associations e.g. name withface
 
often established in one trial
 
one is conscious of remembering
 
starts only after the age of 2 yrs
 
affected by amnesia
 
learning involves the hippocampusin medial part of the inferiortemporal lobe.
 
memories are stored in all theassociation areas and in particular inthe anterior and lateral areas of theinferior temporal lobe.Two types of declarative memory are semanticand episodic.
2.2.1 Semantic
Characteristics:
 
Remembering faces and places.
 
Remembering facts and concepts.
 
Familiar places are stored in theparahippocampal place area (PPA) in themedial part of the inferior temporal lobe
 
Familiar faces are recognized in thefusiform face area (FFA) and anteriorareas of the inferior temporal lobe.
 2.2.2 Episodic
Characteristics:
 
Remembering particular objects andplaces in one’s personal past.
 
Episodic are composed of severalsemantic memories.
 
Associating who and what with whereand when.
 
Examples:
 
In episodic memory one not onlyrecognizes the person in the picture butalso when the picture was taken. “Wevisited Paris when the kids were young”.
 
The sequence of places one passes whilewalking across a city. The synthesis of L12 - 2
 
such representations provides us with amap of the spatial layout of the city.
 
The areas activated by rememberedobjects are the same as those activatedduring the perception of these objects.
 
Different areas specialize in differentcategories of objects. We saw that theFAA is activated during face perception.After a lesion FFA, patients developprosopagnosia.
Working memory 
Working memory is subdivided into severalcompartments.Three compartments are:
 
Spatial Locations
 
Words
 
Visual ObjectsEach has its own separate limited capacity.One compartment can be full and the othersempty.Visual working memory of objects is not storedin retinal coordinates, but perhaps in objectcentered coordinates.Short term working memory involvesreverberating circuits.In such a circuit, activity continues long afterinput/sensation ends.y involvesreverberating circuits.In such a circuit, activity continues long afterinput/sensation ends.L12 - 3

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