Cement and Lime Manufacturing Industries
This Reference Document on best available techniques in the cement and lime industriesreflects an information exchange carried out according to Article 16(2) of Council Directive96/61/EC. The document has to be seen in the light of the preface which describes theobjectives of the document and its use.This BREF document has two parts, one for the cement industry and one for the lime industry,which each have 7 chapters according to the general outline.
Cement is a basic material for building and civil engineering construction. Output from thecement industry is directly related to the state of the construction business in general andtherefore tracks the overall economic situation closely. The production of cement in theEuropean Union stood at 172 million tonnes in 1995, equivalent to about 12% of world production.After mining, grinding and homogenisation of raw materials; the first step in cementmanufacture is calcination of calcium carbonate followed by burning the resulting calciumoxide together with silica, alumina, and ferrous oxide at high temperatures to form clinker. Theclinker is then ground or milled together with gypsum and other constituents to producecement. Naturally occurring calcareous deposits such as limestone, marl or chalk provide the source for calcium carbonate. Silica, iron oxide and alumina are found in various ores and minerals, suchas sand, shale, clay and iron ore. Power station ash, blast furnace slag, and other processresidues can also be used as partial replacements for the natural raw materials.To produce 1 tonne of clinker the typical average consumption of raw materials in the EU is1.57 tonnes. Most of the balance is lost from the process as carbon dioxide emission to air inthe calcination reaction (CaCO
CaO + CO
).The cement industry is an energy intensive industry with energy typically accounting for 30-40% of production costs (i.e. excluding capital costs). Various fuels can be used to provide theheat required for the process. In 1995 the most commonly used fuels were petcoke (39%) andcoal (36%) followed by different types of waste (10%), fuel oil (7%), lignite (6%) and gas(2%).In 1995 there were 252 installations producing cement clinker and finished cement in theEuropean Union and a total of 437 kilns, but not all of them in operation. In addition there werea further 68 grinding plants (mills) without kilns. In recent years typical kiln size has come to be around 3000 tonnes clinker/day.The clinker burning takes place in a rotary kiln which can be part of a wet or dry long kilnsystem, a semi-wet or semi-dry grate preheater (Lepol) kiln system, a dry suspension preheater kiln system or a preheater/precalciner kiln system. The best available technique
for the production of cement clinker is considered to be a dry process kiln with multi-stage suspension preheating and precalcination. The associated BAT heat balance value is 3000 MJ/tonneclinker.
See chapter 1.5 for qualifications about applicability and feasibility.