Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword
Like this
4Activity
×
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
MUTHAIYAN - THAMIRABARANI

MUTHAIYAN - THAMIRABARANI

Ratings: (0)|Views: 500|Likes:
Published by Muthaiyan G.
This is my Post Graduate print project. published on October 2009 in this newspaper any comments or mistakes if you proud i'll agree.
This is my Post Graduate print project. published on October 2009 in this newspaper any comments or mistakes if you proud i'll agree.

More info:

Published by: Muthaiyan G. on May 04, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See More
See less

12/09/2012

pdf

text

original

 
kÚ¶∫Ô·VÔÔV‚Ω_ zΩlÚÕ> \¬ÔÁ·ªÁ´ s‚º¶ ÔVo ÿƒFBkuAÆ›mD ∂´∑. {‚|ˆÁ\∂π›m {‚|¬ÔÁ· \‚|DkV∫˛ s‚| zΩ•ˆÁ\∂π¬ÔV\_ ªÁ´s‚|m´›m˛≈m.∂ˆBŸÏ \Vk‚¶Dÿ¤BDÿÔVı¶D ÂÔÁ´∂|›m m·V´∫z§flEl_k™›mÁ≈¬z ÿƒVÕ>\V™∑\VÏ 200 ∞¬ÔÏ ÔV| c^·m.÷>Á™ÿBV‚Ω√‚¶>V´ÏÔπ[ WÈD c^·m.÷Õ> ÔV‚Á¶ ∑u§KD \¬Ô^kE›m kÚ˛[≈™Ï. 1947gDgı| ®∫˛ÚÕº>V kÕ>c|DA ∏Ω›>ÁÈ ÿ>VaÈVÔ ÿƒFmD, ˛w∫z kÁÔÔÁ·ckVÔ cı|D kÕº>VVD. ∏[™Vπ_, ÔV‚Ω_ ŒÚ ˛.*.ÿ>VÁÈs_ 5 ÿƒ[‚ √´©√·s_ ∑|ÔV| \uÆD kaÁB•DcÚkV¬˛ √B[√|›] kÚ˛º≈VD. ®∫Ô”¬z √VÁ>,º√V¬zk´›m kƒ] t[ƒV´ kƒ], \uÆD >ıßÏ kƒ]ÁB•D,∂´ºƒ ∞u√|›] >Õm^·m. ÂV∫Ô^ T‚| kˆ•D ÿƒK›]kÚ˛º≈VD. ∂>uÔV™ g>V´D ®∫Ôπ¶D c^·m. zΩÁƒ \uÆD{‚| T|Ô”D ∂]Ô\VÔ c^· ÷¶›Á> ]œÿ´™ 2kÚ¶∫Ô”¬z x[™Ï k™›mÁ≈ ∂]ÔVˆÔ^ ÔV‚Ω[ ÿ\V›>÷¶›Á>•D ƒÏºk ÿƒF>™Ï. ∂©º√Vm ®∫Ôπ[ zΩlÚ©ADskƒVB WÈ∫Ô”D ∂>uz‚√‚| kÕ>™. skƒVB WÈ∫ÔÁ·k™›mÁ≈ ∂]ÔVˆÔ^ ÁÔ©√u§¬ ÿÔVı| zΩlÚ©Á√fl ∑u§3 ∂Ω ∂·s_ k´©A º√V‚|^·™Ï.k™›mÁ≈ ∂]ÔVˆÔ^ ÷∫z kE¬zD 25 z|D√∫ÔÁ·•Dc¶™ΩBVÔ ÔVo ÿƒF•D√Ω kuAÆ›] kÕ>™Ï. ÂV∫Ô^\[≈›]_ kw¬z ÿ>V¶ÏÕm kw¬z xΩ•D kÁ´÷kÏÔ”¬z ÿ>VÕ>´° ∞mD >´¬Ì¶Vm ®[Æ cˆ\DkV∫˛•^·>VÔ \¬Ô^ ÌÆ˛[≈™Ï. ÷kÏÔ^ ∂´∑¬zºÔVˆ¬ÁÔBVÔ Ák©√m, ÂV∫Ô^ kE›m kÚD 25 ∞¬ÔÏWÈ›]Á™ ®∫Ô”¬z √‚¶V kw∫Ô ºkı|D,∑|ÔV‚|¬z 5 ÿƒ[‚ ÷¶xD ∂>uÔV™ kaÁB•D∂Á\›m ÿÔV|¬Ô ºkı|D.®∫Ô”¬z ºkÆ÷¶∫Ô”¬z ÿƒ_È sÚ©√D ÷_ÁÈ. ÷Õ> ÷¶›Á>ºB®∫Ô”¬z ∂´∑ ]ÚD√ kw∫Ô ºkı|D. ®∫Ô·V_k™›mÁ≈¬z ®Õ> s> ºƒ>xD ∞u√¶Vm ®™ ∂kÏÔ^ÿ>ˆs›m^·VÏ.
Student Lab Journal of the Department of Communication Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli.
∏≈Õ> ÂV‚Ω_∏≈Õ> ÂV‚Ω_∏≈Õ> ÂV‚Ω_∏≈Õ> ÂV‚Ω_∏≈Õ> ÂV‚Ω_∂Ô]BV™ ÷Ú·ÏÔ^∂Ô]BV™ ÷Ú·ÏÔ^∂Ô]BV™ ÷Ú·ÏÔ^∂Ô]BV™ ÷Ú·ÏÔ^∂Ô]BV™ ÷Ú·ÏÔ^
÷Ú·Ï ÷™\¬Ô^kE›m kÚD ÿ¤BDÿÔVı¶D
 
√z]
º¶ƒ[
ÂokÁ¶ÕmkÚDÿƒ°›ÿ>Va_
®ø›m, Œπ©√¶D : 
G
.x›Á>B[
÷m√u§ º¶ƒ[(80) ®[√kÏ ÌÆÁÔl_ ®∫Ô”¬z ÷∫z kÚk>uzx[A kÁ´ W´Õ>´ ÷¶D ÷_ÁÈ. ÷Õ> ÷¶›]uz kÕ> ∏[™Ï ®∫Ô”¬z∂[≈V¶ kÚ\V™D ˛Á¶›>m. √VDA, ˇˆ©∏^Á·,
Vol.17Oct, 2009Issue
5050505050
√´V\ˆ›m kÕ> \´∫Ô^, ÿƒΩ ÿÔVΩÔ^ º√V[≈kuÁ≈ ∂–√s¬Ô ̶Vm.÷ÁkBÁ™›mD k™›mÁ≈¬z ÿƒVÕ>\V™Ák ®[Æ kˆÁƒ ®ıº√V‚|^·™Ï.>uº√VÁ>B xÔkˆl_ ®∫Ô”¬z {‚|ˆÁ\•D c^·m.÷kÏÔ”¬zÔVÔ >uº√VÁ>B √fiƒVB›m >ÁÈkÏ >∫ÔmÁ´ ∂kÏÔ^ cflƒ¿]
50 kÚ¶∫Ô·V˛•D √‚¶V ÷_ÈV> WÁÈ50 kÚ¶∫Ô·V˛•D √‚¶V ÷_ÈV> WÁÈ50 kÚ¶∫Ô·V˛•D √‚¶V ÷_ÈV> WÁÈ50 kÚ¶∫Ô·V˛•D √‚¶V ÷_ÈV> WÁÈ50 kÚ¶∫Ô·V˛•D √‚¶V ÷_ÈV> WÁÈ
√w∫zΩ ÷Ú·Ï ÷™›Á> ºƒÏÕ> \¬Ô^ ÷Õ> ÔV‚Ω[ ŒÚ {´›]_ 25 ∞¬ÔÏ√´©√·s_ zΩÿ√BÏÕ>™Ï.(ÿ¤BDÿÔVı¶D)
Photographic is a medium - a vehicle forcommunicating facts or fictions, and for expressingideas. It requires craftmanship and artistic ability invarying proportions.
Photography :
Light travels in straight lines, as if in wave motion.Wavelenths are measured in nanometers (nm). Visiblelight forms a small part of a much wider range of electromagnatic radiation. It transmits energy in theform of ‘Photons’.
Lighting :
Photographic lenses are assembled from multi -elements to help corr ect optical aberrations producedby single - elements. Glass surfaces are coatedthroughout to minimize reflections. Smallest andlargest aperture setting are also restricted to helpreduce aberration effects.
Lenses :
Sponsored by 
c^º·...
s]ÁB *Æk>uzkVÔ™ {‚ΩÔπ[∂§BVÁ\ºBÔV´D
257
ÿ¤B∫ÿÔVı¶›]_ >´D kVFÕ> WȬԈ˛Á¶¬˛≈m.
 
2
∂´ƒV∫Ô›][ ÿ√Vm ÿƒV›]Á™ √´V\ˆ©√m ®[√m ÿ√Vm\¬Ôπ[Ô¶Á\. ∂©ÿ√VÆ©∏Á™ >∫Ô·m ∂È‚EBº√V¬˛™V_ \u≈kÏÔ”D √B[∂Á¶B xΩBV> ÛwK¬z >^·©√|˛≈m. ÿ√Vm ÿƒV›]™V_ >V[ \‚|D√B[ ÿ√u≈V_ º√VmD. >V[ √B[√|›]B ∏[ \u≈kÏÔ^ √B[√|›mkÏ®[≈ ®ıD mπ•t[§ ÂVƒD ∂Á¶BflÿƒFkÏ. º√ÚÕm WÁÈB›][WÁÈ >V[ ÷]_ ÿ√ˆmD √V]©A¬z^·Vkm.÷[Á≈¬z zπBÈÁ≈,Ôa©√Á≈ ÷_ÈV º√ÚÕm WÁÈBº\ ÷_ÁÈ. ∂´ƒV∫ÔD ÷ÁkÔÁ·>MBVˆ¶D z›>ÁÔ¬z ÿÔV|›m^·m. ÷>Á™ ŒÚ EÈÏ z›>ÁÔ¬z ®|›m√´V\ˆ›m kÚ˛[≈™Ï.ÂVD ÔVÁÈl_ Am ÷¶\VÔ ÷Ú©√>V_ º>Ω Ôı|∏Ω›m Á√ƒVÿÔV|›m c^º· ÿƒ[Æ √VÏ›>V_ ƒˆBV™ √´V\ˆ©A ÷_ÈV\_ ÷Ú¬zD.ÂVD ÂD ºkÁÈ xΩÕ>V_ º√VmD ®[Æ WÁ™›>kVÆ ÂD ºkÁÈÁBxΩ›m s‚| kÕms|ºkVD. ∂Õ> ºÂ´D \‚|D Â\¬z ∂kÏÔπ[ º\_ºÔV√xD ®ˆflƒKD ÷Ú¬zD. ∂>Á™ s‚| ÿkπºB kÕ>mD ÂVD \≈Õms|km cı|. Ôı|ÿÔV^kº> ÷_ÁÈ. ]ÚÿÂ_ºko A]B º√ÚÕmWÁÈB›]_ ÂT™ Ô‚¶ Ôa©√Á≈ ÷B∫˛ kÚ˛≈m, ÿ√Bˆ_ \‚|º\ÂT™D, c^º· ÿƒ[Æ √VÏ›>V_ ®Às> √´V\ˆ©AD ÷_ÈV\_ ÷Ú¬˛≈m.÷>uÔVÔ ∂>[ z›>ÁÔÔV´Á´ √VÏ¬Ô ºkı|ÿ\[≈V_ ∂>[√ËBV·ÏÔ^ BVÚD >¬Ô √]_ ÿƒV_k]_ÁÈ ÿ\›>™\VÔ ÷Ú¬˛[≈™Ï.ÿ√Vm \¬Ô^ BVÚD ÷>Á™ Ôı| ÿÔV^k]_ÁÈ. zπBÈÁ≈l_ \ÈDÔa›m ∂>Á™ ∑›>©√|›>V\_ zπBÈÁ≈ ®[≈ ÿ√Bˆ_ ÔakÁ≈ÁBƒˆÿƒFm √´V\ˆ›m kÚ˛[≈™Ï.g™V_ EÆ¿Ï Ôa©√>uz \uÆD \ÈD Ôa©√>uz ®[Æ 1‘., 2‘.,T>D kÛ_ ÿƒFB©√|D. ÷m EÈ ºÂ´∫Ôπ_ EÆ¿Ï Ôa¬Ô 2‘√VF ®[ÆD\ÈD Ôa¬Ô 5‘√VF kV∫z˛[≈™Ï. ÷>Á™ BVÚD ºÔ‚√]_ÁÈ. ∂kÏÔ^ºÔ‚¶mD ‘√VÁB ÿÔV|›m s‚| ÿƒ_˛[≈™Ï.ÂVD ÿÔV|¬zD ‘√VF¬z ƒˆBV™ xÁ≈l_ √´V\ˆ©A ÷Ú¬Ôºkı|D. ∂©√Ω ÷_ÁÈÿB[≈V_ ∂kÏÔπ¶D ÂD zÁ≈ÔÁ· ÿ>ˆs›mÂVD >V[ WkÏ›] ÿƒFB ºkı|D. ∂m Â\m Ô¶Á\BVzD.ÕÁ> ÿ√ˆBVˆ[ xBuEBV_ g]¬Ô ƒ¬]Ôπ[ g]¬Ô›]oÚÕm*ı¶ ÿ√Vm \¬Ô^ >[ WÁÈ ∂§BVm *ı|D ∂ΩÁ\ ƒ¬]Ôπ¶D E¬˛kÚ˛[≈™. ÷>uz ∂´∑D g]¬Ôflƒ¬]Ôπ[ ÁÔ©√VÁkBVÔ c^·m.z·›#Ï \Ë cBÏWÁÈ› >tμ gEˆBÏÔπ[ ÔÚ›m¬ÔÁ· ºÔ‚|ÿ√ˆBVˆ[ ÔÚ›][ √V_ ~Ϭԩ√‚| ÿ√ˆBˆ[ ÿÔV^ÁÔÔÁ· ÷[Æ kÁ´√´©∏ kÚ˛≈VÏ. ÿ√ˆBVÏ x>o_ ®|›>m ƒV] {a©A, ∂|›>VÔ \> \Æ©A,Ô¶°^ \Æ©A ®[≈ WÁȬz kÕ>VÏ. ∂kÏ ÔV‚|˛[≈ ∂¬ÔÁ≈ÁBfl ƒV]Œa©∏_ ®Õ> ∂Á\©AD ÔV‚¶ s_ÁÈ. ®™ºk ÿ√ˆBVÏ ]´Vs¶¬ÔwÔDcÚkVzD WÁÈ ∞u√‚¶m. ÿ√ˆBVˆ[ xøÁ\BV™ ÔÚ›mÁ´Ô^ ÷[Æ\¬Ôπ¶D ÿÔVı| k´©√|˛≈m.ŒÚ WÆk™›]≈ÔVÔ s]ÁB >·Ï›> x[kÚD ∂´∑ \¬Ôπ[ ¿Ïg>V´›Á> ÔV©√Vu≈ x[ k´Vm. ÷>™V_ √È g]¬Ô kϬÔ∫Ôπ™V_√u√È ÷Á¶RÆÔ^ ∞u√|˛[≈™. ÷m º√V[≈ \¬Ô”¬z sa©A™ÏÁk∞u©√|›mD ÿƒB_ÔÁ· ÿƒFk>™V_ >V[ √È xÁ≈ º>EB √VmÔV©Aƒ‚¶D, ÿ√V¶V, >¶V, tƒV º√V[≈ √È ƒ‚¶∫ÔÁ·©√B[√|›] ®∫Ô^√´√´©AÔÁ· WÆ›>°D ÷>[ JÈD \u≈kÏÔÁ· ∂fl∑Æ›>kDº>Ákl_ÈV\_ ÷flƒ‚¶∫Ô^ √B[√|›>©√|˛≈m.ÔVk_ mÁ≈l™Ï ÁÔm ÿƒFkm c™¬ÔVÔ º√V´V|√kÏÔ^ c^º·÷Ú¬˛≈VÏÔ^, ®[Æ ƒÔ º>VwÏÔÁ·•D Œ›> ÔÚ›mÁ´Ôπ[ ˇμ√B[√|›mk>uºÔ. c>V´\VÔ T´©√Á™© ∏Ω¬Ôfl ÿƒ[≈ ∂]´Ω©√Á¶l™ÏÿƒF> \¬Ô^ sº´V>fl ÿƒBoÁ™¬ ÔıΩ›m ∂Á´ gı|Ô^ EÁ≈l_∂Á¶¬Ô©√‚¶™Ï. >uº√Vm >Ôk_ ∂§•D ƒ‚¶D JÈ\VÔ ®∫Ô^ ªˆ[∑uÆflÛw_ ÔwÔ›][ kVlÈVÔ √_ºkÆ >Ôk_ÔÁ· ÿkπ¬ÿÔVı|kÕm^º·VD. c>V´\VÔ ®∫Ô^ ªˆ_ ÷ڱƺÔVΩ ‘V√Vl_ Ô‚¶©√‚¶∂™_t[ WÁÈB›][ WȬԈÔ^ ªˆ[ Â|s_ ÿÔV‚¶©√|˛≈m. ÷Ák®Às> ∂–\]•t[§ ÂÁ¶©ÿ√uÆkÚ˛≈m.ŒÚ ÂVÁ·¬z 300 ¶[ WȬԈ ÿk‚Ω ®|¬Ô©√|˛≈m. ÷Ák 11 kÚ¶\VÔ®Às> ∂–\]•t[§ ÿƒFB©√|˛≈m ®[√m >Ôk_ ∂§•D ƒ‚¶D JÈD∂§B©√|˛≈m. ÷[ÆkÁ´ ŒÚ gı|Ô^ ̶\V∑¬Ô‚|©√V|kVˆBxD ∂–\]ÿ√≈s_ÁÈ ®[≈ÔΩ>∫Ô^∂–©∏™VKD,√]K¬z ∂kÏÔ”Dsı©∏›]Ú¬˛º≈VD®[≈ √]_ ÿ\–∂–©AkVÏÔ^, ÷Õ>WÁÈ 11 kÚ¶\VÔÿ>V¶ÏÕmÿÔVıΩÚ¬˛≈m. ÷º>º√V_ ÿ>VauflƒVÁÈÔ^Ek©A, g´fi∑, √flÁƒW≈∫Ôπ_∏ˆ¬Ô©√|˛≈m. º\KD5 ˛.* ÿ>VÁÈs_ >V[∂>Vkm zΩ¿Ï√w∫zΩl™Ï 7% ®™°D, >Vμ›>©√‚º¶VÚ¬z 15% ®™°D kw∫˛™V_cBÏ ÷™›]™ˆ[ ®ıˬÁÔ zÁ≈•D ®™ ®]Ï©A ÿ>ˆs›m kÚ˛≈VÏÔ^.÷kÏÔÁ· ƒ\V>V™√|›> 54 ÷¶∫Ô·VÔ ∂]Ôˆ¬Ô©º√V˛≈m ®[Æ ÌÆ˛[≈™Ï.∂º> º√V[Æ cBϬÔ_s WÆk™∫Ôπ_ ºkÁÈl_ ÷¶ Œm¬ˇ| ∂\_√|›>¬Ì¶Vm ®[≈ yÏ\V™D Ô¶Õ> ÔÁ¶E ∂´∑ \VWÈ∫Ô^ ∂Ákl_ÿÔVı|k´©√‚¶m. ÷>Á™ ∂§ÕmD \¬Ô^ ÷[–D º√V´V‚¶›]uz>BV´VÔs_ÁÈ, º√V[≈ ÔÚ›m¬ÔÁ· g]¬Ô kϬÔ∫Ô”¬z ®]´VÔ x[Ák›>VÏ.guÆ©√|ÁÔ•D, ÿ>VauflƒVÁÈÔ”D ∂Á\Õ]Ú¬Ô ºkı|D. g™V_ ®∫Ô^ªˆ_ 1.5 ˛.* ÿ>VÁÈs_ ÿ>VauƒVÁÈ ∂Á\Õm^·m. >uº√Vm ∂´∑ 5 ˛.*ÿ>VÁÈsÁ™ 1˛.* ÿ>VÁÈsuz zÁ≈¬ÔÈV\V ®™ √ˆÊo›> º√Vm ∑uÆflÛw_gÏkÈÏÔπ[ ®]Ï©∏™V_ >uº√Vm WÆ›]Ák¬Ô©√‚|^·m.÷º> º√V[Æ~w›]KD cÏ° ÿ√V∫˛ ®øÕ>m, ∂>Á™ ¿¬Ô©º√V´VΩBm ∂>Á™ >|›mWÆ›]BmD g]¬Ôflƒ¬]Ô^ >V[. ÷[Á≈B ~w›][ WÁÈÁ\ÁB•D,∏´√VÔ´Á™ √u§•D ÷Õ]B ∂Á\]©√Á¶l[ >·√] «ÏsÕ>ÏE∫ ®ø]BA›>Ô›Á> √Ω›>VºÈ ÿ>ˆ•D. ∂Á\] kal_ º√V´VΩ•D xΩBV> WÁÈ∞u√‚¶>[ ÔV´\VÔg]¬ÔkϬÔ∫Ô”¬z º√V´V‚¶›][ º>Ák ÷[–D∂]Ôˆ›>m. ~w©º√V´V‚¶D ÂVD √VÏ›m ´E©√>uz ∂_È, ∂kÏÔ^ JÈD√V¶DÔuƬÿÔV^k>uºÔ. ÷[Æ ÂD >tμÂV‚Ω_ \›]B ∂´∑ WÆk™∫Ôπ_√B[√|D ÿ\VaBVÔ ÷Õ]•D, g∫˛ÈxD c^·m. ÂD >tμ ÿ\VaA≈¬Ôˬԩ√|˛≈m.®™ºk, ÿ\Va•ˆÁ\ √§¬Ô©√|˛≈m. ÷º> º√V_∂´EBÈÁ\©AÔπ_ ƒ‚¶D ÷Bu≈©√‚¶ 60 gı|Ôπ_ \›]B Ô_s WÆ™∫Ô^52 c^·™. ÷]_ ∏u√|›>√‚º¶VÏ 27% ®[Æ Ì§lÚ¬˛[≈™Ï. >uº√Vm 9%÷ÀkVı| x>_ ∂\_√|›>ÈVD ®™¬Ì§ kÚ¬˛[≈™Ï.
AzÕ>m ÷BÕ]´ D \Á≈Õ>m ÁÔ›>§   
®ø›m, Œπ©√¶D :
S.S
.p˜›
|›mk>uz \VuÆ›mË ÷_ÈV\_ ÷ÚÕ> ÔVÈD \V§ ÷[Æ ÂV”¬zŒ[ÆD ºÂ´›]uz Œ[ÆD c|›mD ÔVÈD ÷m. ÷Õ> gÁ¶Ô^ cÚkV¬zDÿƒkV·ÏÔπ[ ∏[™Ël_ ¶©√m ®[™ ®[√m >V[ \™Á>cÚ¬z˛≈m.÷[Æ gÁ¶ cÚkV¬Ô›]_ ÂT™ \BD AzÕ>>V_ ŒÚ ÔVÈ›]_E≈Õm s·∫˛B ÿƒ°›ÿ>Va_ ÷[Æ ÔVV\_ º√VF ÷BÕ]´\B\V˛s‚¶m.∑\VÏ 50 kÚ¶∫Ô”¬z x[ ]ÚÿÂ_ºko \Vk‚¶D √ÁwB©º√‚Á¶l_\‚|D 500¬zD º\u√‚¶ \¬Ô^ ÿƒ°›ÿ>VaÁÈ ÿƒFm kÕ>™Ï. ÷[Æ 50¬zDzÁ≈kV™ \¬Ôº· ÷Õ> ÿ>VaÁÈ ÿƒFm kÚ˛[≈™Ï. ÂoÕm kÚD ÷›ÿ>VaÁȺ\D√|›> ∂´∑D x[ k´s_ÁÈ.ÿ√ıÔ”\VÔ ÷Ú√VÈÚD ÷›ÿ>VaÁÈ ÿƒFm kÕ>™Ï. ÷›ÿ>VaooÚÕmº√Vm\V™ kÚkVF ˛Á¶¬ÔV>>V_ gıÔ^ z|D√›]Á™ ÔV©√Vu≈ ºkÆÿ>VaÁÈ ÂV¶ ºkıΩlÚÕ>m. ∂>™V_ ÷[Æ ÿ√ıÔ^ \‚|º\ ÷›ÿ>VaÁÈÿƒF˛[≈™Ï.ÿƒF˛[≈™Ï. ÷>uz º>ÁkBV™ JÈ©ÿ√VÚ‚Ô^ \mÁ´loÚÕmÿÔVı| k´©√|˛≈m. ÷∫z ºkÁÈ ÿƒF•D ÿ>VaÈVπÔ”¬z ®Õ> s>\V™Ô‚|©√V|Ô”D s]¬Ô©√|k]_ÁÈ. ∂kÏÔ^ sÚDAD ºÂ´›]_ k´°D, ]ÚD∏ÿƒ_È°D ∂kÏÔ”¬z xø cˆÁ\ cı|. ∞ÿ™[≈V_ ÷>[ cu√›]zÁ≈kV™>V_ ÷kÏÔ”¬ÔV™ √ˬÌo•D zÁ≈°. ®™ºk ∂kÏÔ”¬zsÚ©√© √‚¶ ºÂ´›]_ ºkÁÈ ÿƒF˛[≈™Ï.50 gı|Ô”¬z x[ gıÔ”D÷BÕ]´∫Ôπ[ k´°D º√V]Bª]B cBÏ° ÷_ÈVÁ\•º\.÷>uz x¬˛B ÔV´D ∂´E[Ôk™¬ zÁ≈° ÷kÏÔ^ ∂´∑ÔV‚|D sΩBÁÈ ºÂV¬˛ÔV›]Ú¬zD ÿÂVFÕ>ÿƒkV·ÏÔ^.º\KD ÿ>VaÈVπ x›>D\V^ ÌÆÁÔl_ ÂV∫Ô^ 20 gı|Ô·VÔ÷›ÿ>VaÁÈfl ÿƒFm kÚ˛º≈VD. ÷>Á™ ÂV∫Ô^ √z] ºÂ´ºkÁÈBVÔ›>V[ ÿƒFm kÚ˛º≈VD. ÷∫z ®Õ>s> Ô‚|©√V|D ˛Á¶BVm.ÂV∫Ô^ ®∫Ô^ T‚| ºkÁÈÔ^ ∂Á™›Á>•D xΩ›m s‚| >V[ ºkÁȬzkÚ˛º≈VD. ŒÚ ÂV^ 4-oÚÕm 6 mı|Ô^ kÁ´ >BVˆ©º√VD. ÂVÿ·V[Ƭz‘ 20oÚÕm 30‘ kÁ´ ª]B\VÔ ÿ√Æ˛[º≈VD ®[Æ Ì§™VÏ.º\KD ®∫Ô”¬z ∂´∑ ÂÈ›]‚¶ c>sÔº·V ƒKÁÔÔº·V ®m°D˛Á¶BVm. ÷>Á™ ŒÚ Ìo›ÿ>Va_ º√V_ >V[ ÿƒFm kÚ˛[º≈VD.>uº√Vm ÿƒ°›ÿ>VaÁÈ Â¶›] kÚ˛[≈ √VÈ∑Õ>´D (55) ÌÆÁÔl_,ÂV[ ÷›ÿ>VaÁÈ ∑\VÏ 25 kÚ¶\VÔ Â¶›] kÚ˛[º≈[.÷∫z 10 º√Ï ºkÁÈŒÚ ÔVÈ›]_ E≈Õms·∫˛B ÿƒ°›ÿ>Va_÷[Æ ÷ÀkVÆÂokÁ¶k>uz
∂¬º¶V√Ï, 2009
>Vt´√´Ë  
 >ÁÈB∫ÔD   >ÁÈB∫ÔD   >ÁÈB∫ÔD   >ÁÈB∫ÔD   >ÁÈB∫ÔD  
ÿƒ°›ÿ>Va_ ÿƒF•D x›>D\V^√VÈ∑Õ>´D
]ÔV´D ÿƒF•D]ÔV´D ÿƒF•D]ÔV´D ÿƒF•D]ÔV´D ÿƒF•D]ÔV´D ÿƒF•Dggggg]¬Ôfl ƒ¬]Ô^]¬Ôfl ƒ¬]Ô^]¬Ôfl ƒ¬]Ô^]¬Ôfl ƒ¬]Ô^]¬Ôfl ƒ¬]Ô^
z·›#Ï \Ë
(√ÁwB©º√‚Á¶)
xÁ≈BV™ √´V\ˆ©A ÷_ÈV>ÿ√Vm¬ Ôa©√Á≈Ô^
g]¬Ôflƒ¬]Ôπ[ ÁÔ©∏Ωl_ ∂´∑
®ø›m: ÷.ºÔV√VÈ˛Úi[ ,ºk.¶´V¤[Œπ©√¶D: ºk.¶´V¤[
>ta_ x>_ º√∑D √¶D - ÔVπ>V¸x>[ x>o_ ÷Õ]BVs_ ÿkπl¶©√‚¶ √¶D - ´V¤V ∂ˆƒÕ]´V>ta_ x>_ ÷´‚Á¶ ºk¶ √¶D - c›>\A›]´[x>_ >tμ ÔÈÏ √¶D - ∂o√V√V°D, 40 ]Ú¶ÏÔ”DE≈©A g¸ÔVÏ sÚm ÿk[≈ ÷Õ]B[ - ƒ›]B˜›º´º√∑D √¶∫Ô^ kÚk>uz x[ ÷Õ]BVs_®›>Á™ ª\ √¶∫Ô^ ÿkπl¶©√‚¶m - 1300÷Õ]BVs[ x>_ 3Ω √¶D - Á\ΩBÏ z‚ΩflƒV›>V[÷Õ]BVs[ x>_ º√ƒD √¶D - gÈDg´VÔ>VÂVBÔ[ ÷_ÈV> x>_ >tμ ]Á´©√¶D - Œ·ÁkBVÏcÈÔ›]_ x>_ EM\V¸ºÔV© √¶D - ] º´V©
ccccc>
Depth of field is the zone between nearest andfurthest subjects which are all acceptably in focus atone distance setting.
Depth of Field :Digital Camera :
The CCD sensor in place of film carries amicroscopic grid of pixels, to convert the imagefocused on it by the camera lens into a stream of digital electronic signals. The more pixels, the higherthe resolution of the digital image and the greater itsrecorded ‘file’ size.Depth of focus is the tolerance of focusmovement before an originally focused part of thesubject appears unsharp. It is greatest with closesubjects and long focal lenth lenses.
Depth of Focus :
ÿ√Vm ∂§° - 2009
z·›#Ï)
 
3
Á´ klÆ ÔfiEBV™VKD zÁ≈Õ> Ìo ®[≈VKD >V∫Ô^ 50 kÚ¶\VÔÿƒFm kÕ> ÿ>VaÁȺB ÂD∏ ÷Ú¬zD ]ÚÿÂ_ºko \Vk‚¶ √ÁwBº√‚Á¶l_∏›>Á· √V›]´› ÿ>Va·V·ÏÔ^.170 ÿ>VaÈV·ÏÔ”¶[ √ÁwBº√‚Á¶l_ ∏›>Á· √V›]´ cu√›]›ÿ>Va_ tÔfl E≈©√VÔ ÂÁ¶ÿ√uÆ kÚ˛≈m. ÷∫z^· E≈©A ∂DƒD®[™ÿk[≈V_ gƒVˆÔ^ \‚|º\ ÿƒFm kÕ> ÷›ÿ>Va_ ÷[Æ ¤V] \>º√>t[§ ∂Á™›m >´©A \¬Ô·VKD ÿƒFB©√|˛≈m. ÷[Æ ŒÚ ÿÔV›>™VÏ]™¬ÌoBVÔ ‘.250 x>_ ‘.350 kÁ´ kV∫z˛[≈™Ï. g™V_ ÷›ÿ>Vao_÷kÏÔ”¬z ]™¬ÌoBVÔ ˛Á¶©√º>V ‘.100 oÚÕm ‘.150 kÁ´ \‚|º\.º\KD ÷m z§›m√›>Ák›>_(ÿk_Ω∫)ÿƒF•D√VÈ∑©´\ËBM¶D ºÔ‚¶º√Vm 2000-¬z x[AkÁ´ ÁÔÔ·V_√V›]´∫ÔÁ· ÷Á›mkÕº>VD. ÷©º√Vm√›>Ák›>_ JÈD÷Á¬Ô©√|˛≈m.g™V_ ÁÔÔ·V_ ÿƒF•D√V›]´D >V[ ¿Ω›mcÁw¬˛≈m. ÷]_ ~BDØ∑>_ tÔ x¬˛B\V™ºkÁÈBVzD. ÷>[ JÈD√V›]´∫Ô”¬z÷Æ]kΩkDÿÔV|¬Ô©√|˛[≈™.÷m√u§ √V›]´ ÿ>VaÈVπ ´TÕ]´[ ÌÆÁÔl_ 50 kÚ¶∫Ô”¬zº\ÈVÔ ÷∫z ∏›>Á· √V›]´› ÿ>Va_ ÂÁ¶ÿ√uÆ kÚ˛≈m. ÷∫z^· 27-¬zD º\u√‚¶ √‚¶Á≈Ôπ_ ∑\VÏ 170¬zD º\u√‚º¶VÏ √Ë ÿƒF˛[≈™Ï.®∫Ô·m √‚¶Á≈l_ 10 cu√›]BV·ÏÔ^ ÿ√ˆB x>ÈVπÔπ¶tÚÕm g϶Ï∏Ω›m ®∫Ô”¬z ºkÁÈ >Ú˛[≈™Ï. ÷∫z xø¬Ô xø¬Ô ∏›>Á·√V›]´∫Ô^ \‚|º\ >BVˆ¬Ô©√|˛[≈™. 40 ƒ>T>D ÿƒDAD 60 ƒ>T>D ÂVÔxDºƒÏ›m cÚ¬˛ ∏›>Á· >Ô| ÿƒFB©√|˛≈m.ŒÚ ÂV^ ±Æ ˛ºÈV kÁ´ ºkÁÈÿƒFºkVD. ∂>uºÔu≈©√Ω cu√›]BV·ÏÔ^∏ˆ›m kw∫z˛[≈™Ï. ÷]_cu√›]BV·Ú¬zD, x>ÈVπÔ”¬zD ∂]Ô∂·° ÈV√D ˛Á¶¬˛[≈m. ∏›>Á· √V›]´cu√›] ∂]Ô ∂·° ÂÁ¶ÿ√Æ˛≈m. g™V_∂>uºÔu≈ Ìo >V[ ÷_ÁÈ. ÷>™V_®∫Ô·m ∂|›> >ÁÈxÁ≈l™Ï÷›ÿ>VaoÁ™ sÚD√s_ÁÈ.cu√›]BV·ÏÔ^ \uÆD ÿ>VaÈV·ÏÔ^÷ÁÕ> ÿÂ_ÁÈ √V›]´ cu√›]ÿ>VaÈV·Ï ƒ∫ÔxDíí c^·m. ÷Õ>ƒ∫Ô›]uÿÔ[Æ ®Õ> ŒÚ kÁ´ xÁ≈Ô”D÷_ÁÈ. ÷m cu√›]BV·ÏÔ^ WÁ™¬zDº√Vm Ì‚¶©√|˛≈m. ª]B cBÏ° √u§ √ÈxÁ≈ ºÔVˆ¬ÁÔÔ^ Ák›mD ®Õ> √È–D÷_ÁÈ. ÷›ÿ>Vao_ cu√›]BV·ÏÔ^x>ÈVπÔ”¬˛Á¶ºB ÷Á¶›>´ÔÏÔ^ º√V_ÿƒB_√|˛[≈™Ï. Ô¶Õ> 2000 gı| x>_÷BÕ]´∫Ô^ ÷›ÿ>Vao_ Az›>©√‚¶m®™¬ ̧™VÏ.[Á≈B ÔVÈfl ∑wuEl_ ∞u√‚¶ \Vu≈∫Ô·V_ {sB¬ÔÁÈ ®∫ºÔ x¶∫˛©º√VF ˛¶¬˛≈m. ŒÚ EÈÏ ÷]_ ̈B Ôk™D ÿƒK›] ÿ>VaÈVÔ ÿƒFmkÕ>™Ï.EÈ kÚ¶∫Ô”¬z x[A kÁ´ {sB¬ÔÁÈQÏÔ^ ÷´° √ÔÈVÔ ºkÁÈl_~|√‚| kÕ>™Ï ∏[™Vπ_ ºkÁÈl[ ∏[™Vπ_ ÔVÈ›]uºÔu≈ ºÔVÈD®[√]u˛∫Ô ºkÁÈl[ √” zÁ≈©√>uÔVÔ°D ∑È√\VÔ ÿƒF]¶°D ÔËËxÁ≈l_ ˛´V‡∏¬¸ ºkÁÈÔ^ ÿƒFB ÿ>V¶∫˛™Ï.÷Õ> ŒsB› ÿ>Vao_ ÿ√ÚD√VKD zÁ≈kVÔ √Ω›>kÏÔº· ∂]Ô ∂·°~|√‚| kÚ˛[≈™Ï ®[√m z§©∏¶>¬Ôm. ÷m z§›m ∂ˆBKÏ \Vk‚¶DcÁ¶BVÏ √VÁ·BD k‚¶D m·V´∫z§flEl_ ]Ú. ´fiE› ÌÆÁÔl_, ÂV[√›>VD kz©A kÁ´ √Ω›m^º·[. ÷›ÿ>VaÁÈ >fiÁƒl_ EÆ kB]_ ÔuƬÿÔVıº¶[. ∏[™Ï ÂV[ >MBVÔ ÿ>VaÁÈ ÿ>V¶∫˛ WÁ≈B º√Ú¬zÿ>VaÁÈ•D ÔuƬ ÿÔV|›m^º·[. ∂Á™›m kÁÔBV™ s·D√´ √ÈÁÔÔ”D,∑kÏ s·D√´∫Ô”D ÿƒFm^º·[ \uÆD ºÔVs_Ôπ_ √¶D kÁ´>_, ∂´EB_ÿƒFm ÷©º√Vm ºkÁȬÔVÔ ÔV›mÿÔVı| ÷Ú¬˛º≈[. ®[Á™©º√V[≈ √È{sBÏÔ^ ÷[Æ skƒVB›Á> ºÂV¬˛•D, T‚Ωuz kÏD ؃°D ÿƒ[≈mºk>Á™¬zˆB>VzD.÷ÀkVÆ ∂kÏ kÚ›>›m¶[ ̧™VÏ.∂ÀkVÆ ºkÁÈÿƒF•D º√Vm EÈ÷¶∫Ôπ_ ∂]ÔcB´›]_ clÁ´√ÁBD Ák›mÿƒFm^º·VD. ÷[ÆWÁ™¬ÁÔl_gflƒÏB\VÔ°DsB©√VÔ°Dc^·m.÷Õ> ÿ>VaÁÈs‚¶ ∏≈z, ÂV[]ÚflEl_ {´Vı|ÔVÈD {sB gEˆB´VÔ√luE ÿ√uº≈[.ºkÁÈkVF•∂KkÈÔ›]_ √]°
ÿÔV^·ÏÔ^ \‚|º\ ÿƒFm kÕ> ÿÔV^·ÏÔ^ \‚|º\ ÿƒFm kÕ> ÿÔV^·ÏÔ^ \‚|º\ ÿƒFm kÕ> ÿÔV^·ÏÔ^ \‚|º\ ÿƒFm kÕ> ÿÔV^·ÏÔ^ \‚|º\ ÿƒFm kÕ> ÷›ÿ>Va_ ÷[Æ ®_ºÈV´VKD ÷›ÿ>Va_ ÷[Æ ®_ºÈV´VKD ÷›ÿ>Va_ ÷[Æ ®_ºÈV´VKD ÷›ÿ>Va_ ÷[Æ ®_ºÈV´VKD ÷›ÿ>Va_ ÷[Æ ®_ºÈV´VKD ÿƒFB©√|˛≈m.ÿƒFB©√|˛≈m.ÿƒFB©√|˛≈m.ÿƒFB©√|˛≈m.ÿƒFB©√|˛≈m.ÿ>Vauƒ∫ÔD ÷ÚÕmD ®Õ> √B–D ÿ>Vauƒ∫ÔD ÷ÚÕmD ®Õ> √B–D ÿ>Vauƒ∫ÔD ÷ÚÕmD ®Õ> √B–D ÿ>Vauƒ∫ÔD ÷ÚÕmD ®Õ> √B–D ÿ>Vauƒ∫ÔD ÷ÚÕmD ®Õ> √B–D ÷_ÁÈ.÷_ÁÈ.÷_ÁÈ.÷_ÁÈ.÷_ÁÈ.
  >Vt´√´Ë  
∂¬º¶V√Ï, 2009
 ÂokÁ¶Õm kÚD ∏›>Á· √V›]´ ÿ>Va_ 
®ø›m:
R
.
Á√… √V_, Œπ©√¶D:
S.S.
p˜›
´TÕ]´[
ÂoÕm kÚD ÿ>Va_Ôπ_ ∏›>Á· √V›]´ ÿ>VaKD Œ[Æ.]ÚÿÂ_ºkol_ >flƒÂ_ŸÏ, ¶°[, Am©º√‚Á¶ º√V[≈ ÷¶∫Ôπ_ ÷›ÿ>Va_√´kÈVÔ ÂÁ¶ÿ√uÆ kÚ˛≈m ®[ÆD ∂kÏ Ì§™VÏ.
√VÈ∑©´\ËB[√V›]´∫Ô”¬z ÷Æ] kΩkD ÿÔV|¬Ô©√|˛≈m
ÔËM•Ô›>V_ ∂aÕm º√V™ ÔËM•Ô›>V_ ∂aÕm º√V™ ÔËM•Ô›>V_ ∂aÕm º√V™ ÔËM•Ô›>V_ ∂aÕm º√V™ ÔËM•Ô›>V_ ∂aÕm º√V™  {sB¬ÔÁÈ  {sB¬ÔÁÈ  {sB¬ÔÁÈ  {sB¬ÔÁÈ  {sB¬ÔÁÈ 
Ô‚EÔπ[ ∏´ƒV´›]_ √¶D kÁ´>_ ∂Á™›m s>\V™ÿ>VaÁÈ•D ÿƒFm kÕº>[. ®∫ÔÁ· º√V[≈ EÆÔÁÈQÏÔÁ· ÂD∏ BVÚD ∂]Ô ∂·° ºkÁÈÿÔV|©√]_ÁÈ. ÷[Æ ÔËË •Ô\V™>V_ ÿ√ˆBWÆk™∫ Ô”¬z› >V[ ºkÁÈÁBÿÔV|¬˛[≈™Ï.÷›ÿ>Va_ >uº√Vm tÔ°DÂokÁ¶Õm^·m. ®∫Ô”¬z >uº√Vm^· xÁ≈l_kÁ´k>uzD ˛´V∏¬¸ ºkÁÈÔ^ ÿƒFkuzDsÚ©√t_ÁÈ. ∞ÿ™[≈V_ ŒÚ Ôu√Á™›]≈Á™\™]_ √]BÁk›m ∂>Á™ ÁÔBV_ kÁ´•D º√Vm∂]_ ∞u√|D \˛μflE®_ÁÈBu≈m.ÔËË•Ô\V™>V_ √È {sBÏÔπ[ kVμ¬ÁÔ √ˆ>V√WÁȬz^·m.
ºÔ^s¬z§BV™ ÷[Á≈B {sBÏÔπ[ WÁÈ
´fiE›z\VÏ kÁ´Õ> {sBD˛.´fiE›z\VÏ
Œπ©√¶D, ®ø›m:
G
.x›Á>B[ (ÿ¤B∫ÿÔVı¶D)
(]ÚÿÂ_ºko)
÷÷÷÷÷
Distance between the image and lenswhen the lens is focused for an infinitysubject. More precisely, between theimage centre and the lens’s rear nodalpoint.
Focal lenght :

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->