Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Modeling Natural Selection 2010

Modeling Natural Selection 2010

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,119 |Likes:
Published by Patrick Woessner
Exploring natural selection in peppered moths using an online simulation and a Stella model.
Exploring natural selection in peppered moths using an online simulation and a Stella model.

More info:

Published by: Patrick Woessner on May 04, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/04/2010

pdf

text

original

 
Modeling Natural Selection: The Peppered Moth
 Adapted fromGlobal Change 
Introduction:
The case of the peppered moth
(Biston betulari
a) provides a classic example of naturalselection. Go through the 2
nd
and 4
th
links of theonline tutorialto learn why. Pay close attention to thevariation, survival pressure, and selection of the moths. Identify these elements from the tutorial in the spacebelow.
Variation:Pressure:Selection:
Scientists have determined that body color in thepeppered moth is controlled by a single gene.The allele for dark body color is dominant, which meansthat a moth possessing at least one such allele will havea dark body. To have a light body, the moth has to haveboth
 
recessive
 
alleles for light body color.
 Record the possible genotypes for 
:
Dark moth:Light moth:
Dark moths were at a distinct disadvantage, however,due to their increased vulnerability to bird predation.Thus the frequency of the dark allele was very low(about .001%), maintained primarily by spontaneousmutations from light to dark alleles.By 1819, the proportion of dark moths in the population had increased significantly. Researchers found that thelight-colored lichens covering the trees were being killed by sulfur dioxide emissions from the new coal burningmills and factories built during the industrial revolution. Without the light background of the trees, the lightmoths were more visible to vision-oriented predators (birds). They were losing their selective advantage to thedark moths, which, against the trees’ dark bark background, were less visible to birds. In 1848, the dark mothscomprised 1% of the population and by 1959 they represented ~90% of the population. So, in 100 years thefrequency of dark moths increased by 1000 fold!In this exercise, we will work with a model simulating the effects of differential predation pressures on ahypothetical peppered moth population. To do this, we will need to incorporate the genetics of moth body colorinto a population dynamics model. We are assuming that body color is the only trait that confers any significantselective advantages on peppered moths.Because genetics will be central to our investigation, it’s important to remember the following terms/concepts:
Alleles
Genotype
Phenotype
Homozygous
Heterozygous
 
 We have three different genotypes represented in our model:
 
AA MOTHIES:
homozygous dominant moths that are dark in color
 
Aa MOTHLETS:
heterozygous moths that are also dark in color
 
aa MOTHS:
homozygous recessive moths that are light in color
Total initial moth population is: 250 AA + 500 Aa + 250 aa = 1000 mothsTotal initial moth frequency is: .25 AA + .5 Aa + .25 aa = 1.0
Investigating the Model:
Simulation 1
:
Phenotype Frequency
Since pollution is the true driver of the change in genotype frequency in the peppered moth population, it is thevariable that we are most interested in modifying. In this simulation, you will be comparing the phenotypefrequencies (light and dark moths) under three conditions:1.
 
Set the pollution level to 0 (no pollution) and run the model. Record the final values for Red (frequencyof light moths) and Blue (frequency of dark moths).2.
 
Set the pollution level to 0.5 and run the model. Record the final values for Red (frequency of lightmoths) and Blue (frequency of dark moths).3.
 
Set the pollution level to 1 (maximum pollution) and run the model. Record the final values for Red(frequency of light moths) and Blue (frequency of dark moths).*Frequencies are out of 1000 moths
Red Frequency(Light Moths)Blue Frequency(Dark Moths)Trial 1: Pollution = 0Trial 2: Pollution = .5
 
Trial 3: Pollution = 1
Table 1
Analysis 1:
How does increased pollution affect the frequencies of dark and light moths? Explain.
 
Simulation 2
:
Genotype Frequencies
In this simulation, you will be comparing genotype frequencies (AA, Aa, and aa) as pollution levels areincreased:AA: homozygous dominant moths that are dark in color (initial frequency = .25)Aa : heterozygous moths that are also dark in color (initial frequency = .50)aa : homozygous recessive moths that are light in color (initial frequency = .25)1.
 
Set the pollution level to 0 (no pollution) and run the model. Record the final frequency values for AA(blue), Aa (red), and aa (pink).2.
 
Set the pollution level to 0 .5 (moderate pollution) and run the model. Record the final frequency valuesfor AA (blue), Aa (red), and aa (pink).3.
 
Set the pollution level to 1 (maximum pollution) and run the model. Record the final frequency valuesfor AA (blue), Aa (red), and aa (pink). You will use the data from this step in the next simulation.
AA (Blue) Frequency Aa (Red) Frequency aa (Pink) FrequencyTrial 1: Pollution = 0Trial 2: Pollution = .5
 
Trial 3: Pollution = 1
Table 2
Analysis 2:
How does increased pollution affect the frequency of each allele in the population?
Simulation 3: Comparing genotype frequencies as the effects of pollution are reduced.
At the beginning of the exercise, the moth population reflects the effects of maximum pollution in theenvironment. If the pollution level is thereafter reduced, how will the populations of light and dark coloredmoths change?
Prediction:

Activity (3)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->