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Reactive Power Compensation Using Capacitor Banks

Reactive Power Compensation Using Capacitor Banks

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Published by ARVIND
Reactive Power Compensation Using Capacitor Banks
Reactive Power Compensation Using Capacitor Banks

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Published by: ARVIND on May 05, 2010
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INTRODUCTION
In this chapter we are going to discuss about power system in short and about A.PTRANSCO and its role in maintaining power in state from buying and selling the power.
1.1INTRODUCTION TO POWER SYSTEM
Electrical power is a little bit like the air one breathes. One doesn't really think about it until it is missing. Power is just "there," meeting ones daily needs, constantly. Itis only during a power failure, when one walks into a dark room and instinctively hits theuseless light switch, that one realizes how important power is in our daily life. Without it,life can get somewhat cumbersome.Electric Energy is the most popular form of energy, because it can be transportedeasily at high efficiency and reasonable cost. The power system of today is a complexinterconnected network as shown in fig. 1.
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Figure 1 Power System interconnected
 
A Power System can be subdivided into four major parts:i.Generation.ii.Transmission and Sub transmission.iii.Distribution.
iv.Loads.
Power is generated at generating stations, usually located away from the actualusers. The generated voltage is then stepped up to a higher voltage for transmission,as transmission losses are lower at higher voltages. The transmitted electric power is thenstepped down at grid stations.The modern distribution system begins as the primary circuit, leaves the sub-station and ends as the secondary service enters the customer's meter socket. First, theenergy leaves the sub-station in a primary circuit, usually with all three phases.The most common type of primary is known as a wye configuration.The wyeconfiguration includes 3 phases and a neutral (represented by the center of the "Y".) Theneutral is grounded both at the substation and at every power pole. The primary andsecondary (low voltage) neutrals are bonded (connected) together to provide a path to blow the primary fuse if any fault occurs that allows primary voltage to enter thesecondary lines. An example of this type of fault would be a primary phase falling acrossthe secondary lines. Another example would be some type of fault in the transformer itself.The other type of primary configuration is known as delta. This method is older and less common. In delta there is only a single voltage, between two phases (phase to phase), while in wye there are two voltages, between two phases and between a phaseand neutral (phase to neutral). Wye primary is safer because if one phase becomes
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grounded, that is, makes connection to the ground through a person, tree, or other object,it should trip out the fused cutout similar to a household circuit breaker tripping. In delta,if a phase makes connection to ground it will continue to function normally. It takes twoor three phases to make connection to ground before the fused cutouts will open thecircuit. The voltage for this configuration is usually 4800 volts.Transformers are sometimes used to step down from 7200 or 7600 volts to 4800volts or to step up from 4800 volts to 7200 or 7600 volts. When the voltage is stepped up,a neutral is created by bonding one leg of the 7200/7600 side to ground. This iscommonly used to power single phase underground services or whole housingdevelopments that are built in 4800 volt delta distribution areas. Step downs are used inareas that have been upgraded to a 7200/12500Y or 7600/13200Y and the powecompany chooses to leave a section as a 4800 volt setup. Sometimes power companieschoose to leave sections of a distribution grid as 4800 volts because this setup is lesslikely to trip fuses or reclosers in heavily wooded areas where trees come into contactwith lines.For power to be useful in a home or business, it comes off the transmission gridand is stepped-down to the distribution grid. This may happen in several phases. The place where the conversion from "transmission" to "distribution" occurs is in a power substation. A power substation typically does two or three things:i.It has transformers that step transmission voltages down to distribution voltagesii.It has a "bus" that can split the distribution power off in multiple directions.
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