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Platelets and Coagulation System

Platelets and Coagulation System

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Published by faithfabulous1_06
describes how platelets mechanism and coagulation processes takes place in the body.
describes how platelets mechanism and coagulation processes takes place in the body.

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Published by: faithfabulous1_06 on May 05, 2010
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05/05/2013

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Platelets and coagulation system ( exerpt from Dr. Najeeb lecture on youtube
Coagulation- process by which soluble fibrinogen is converted into insoluble fibrinFibrinogen is produced by liverMechanisms in which blood are kept in liquid form:1.
 
Endothelial cells produced: NO, PGI2(prostacyclines2= form of prostaglandin), ADP diphosphatases: these are
antiplatelet agents that don’t allow platelets to stick on the healthy endothelial cells
and keep plateletsinactivated . they are also vasodilators which relaxes smooth muscles of endotheliumPlatelets are membrane bound cytoplasm containing cellls without any nucleus, if activated, undergo reaction thatmakes up plug. Platelet size Size is 2-3 microns, (RBC is 7-8 microns). Life span is 8-10 daysThrombocytopenia= low number of platelets2.
 
Healthy endothelial cells expressed heparin sulfate on their surface ( hep. Sulfate is a molecule on which aspecial type of molecule can seat)-
 
Antithrombin 3 (AT3 made by the liver)when attached onto the heparin sulfate , AT3 become active,oncebecome active: Cut down throbin molecules , inactivate factor IX and X3.
 
Another molecule expressed on the surface on the endothelial cells called thrombo modulent( modulate thefunction of thrombin- these bind with throbin and bounded throbin activates protein C , protein C digest factorV and VII
 
 4.
 
Endothelial cells also produce tissue plasminogen activator ,when fibrin is present in the endothelial system
 Convert other protein from the liver called plasminogen into plasmin. Plasmin takes the fibrin strands
the fibrin willbreakdwown into fibrin degradation productsWhen healthy endothelial cells are injured:3 steps to stop the bleeding1.
 
Vascular constriction
 –
early response to injury-
 
Nerve endings around the injured endothelium release vasoconstrictors ( called neurogenic reflexvasoconstriction)2.
 
Smooth muscels contraction ( reflex myogenic constriction)3.
 
When endothelial cells are injured, produced vasoconstrictors called endothelin
acts on the smooth musclesand constricts them (endothelial derived endothelin mechanism)Note: when endothelial cells are lost during injury , they lost the antiplatet and anticoagulatant properties which keepthe blood in liquid form(discussed above)-
 
Injured cells start producing chemical substances
stick on the exposed underline collagen
they havespecial hooks that hook up passing platelets
these chemical molecules also produces sticking glue thatsticks platelets over that area.( these chemical molecules are called von willebrand factor)Note: platelets have surface glycoprotein receptors (GP1 b)where von willebrand factor attachedThe process where platelets stick on the exposed collagen surface of endothelium is called platelet adhein.
 
After platelet adhein
platelet activation
the receptor on the platelet surface activated by von willebrand factor givessignals to the platelet
in the platelet, phospholipidase enzymes are activated
convert phospho lipids intoarachidonic acid (AA) with the action of cyclooxygenase or COX enzyme
these AA are broken down into thromboxinA2 (TXA2) TXA2 are vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator)Note: aspirin makes platelet inactivated by blocking the COX enzymeActivated platelets starts releasing granulesWhat are these granules:alpha and delta granules( delta granules look like a SAC= contain Serotonin,ADP and Calcium)S= serotonin= vasoconstrictorA= Adenosine Phosphate= platelet activating substance =activates other more plateletsThe drug ticlopidine works on ADP and make platelets less sticky therefore less thrombotic eventC= CalciumFactor xII activates Factor XI
Factor XI activates factor IX
facotr IX activates factor XCalcium held an activating factor to another activating factor inorder to activateNote: activating factors are also dependent on Vit K. to be activeAlpha granules contain some coagulating factors fibrinogen,platelet derived growth factor-platelet derived factor attracts fibroblast to the area of injury , these fibroblast make more collagen to seal theinjury

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