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Vaccination and Medication Programs Fro Small Poultry Flocks

Vaccination and Medication Programs Fro Small Poultry Flocks

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Published by savannahotoole
Vaccination and Medication Programs for Small Poultry Flocks
Dr. Nathaniel L. Tablante
Associate Professor and Extension Poultry Veterinarian VA-MD Regional College of Veterinary Medicine University of Maryland College Park 8075 Greenmead Drive College Park, MD 20742 Tel. 301-314-6810 nlt@umd.edu

Outline
• Vaccination
• What is vaccination? • Do I need to vaccinate? Why or why not? • If yes, when, how, and with what?

• Medication
• What is medication? • Do I need to medicate? Why or why not? •
Vaccination and Medication Programs for Small Poultry Flocks
Dr. Nathaniel L. Tablante
Associate Professor and Extension Poultry Veterinarian VA-MD Regional College of Veterinary Medicine University of Maryland College Park 8075 Greenmead Drive College Park, MD 20742 Tel. 301-314-6810 nlt@umd.edu

Outline
• Vaccination
• What is vaccination? • Do I need to vaccinate? Why or why not? • If yes, when, how, and with what?

• Medication
• What is medication? • Do I need to medicate? Why or why not? •

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: savannahotoole on May 06, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/22/2012

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1
Vaccination and MedicationPrograms for Small Poultry Flocks
Dr. Nathaniel L. Tablante
Associate Professor and Extension Poultry VeterinarianVA-MD Regional College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of Maryland College Park8075 GreenmeadDriveCollege Park, MD 20742Tel. 301-314-6810nlt@umd.edu
Outline
Vaccination
What is
vaccination 
?Do I need to vaccinate? Why or why not?If yes, when, how, and with what?
Medication
What is
medication 
?Do I need to medicate? Why or why not?If yes, when, how, and with what?
Vaccination
What is vaccination?
 –Inoculation with a specificbiological substance(
antigen 
) to stimulateresistance or
immunity 
to aparticular disease –Usually, the antigen is asmall dose an
attenuated 
(weakened) organism thattriggers the body’s defensemechanism to produce
antibodies 
or certain celltypes to attack the invadingorganism
www.cartage.org.lb/.../antigenAB.gif 
Why small flock owners seldomvaccinate their birds
Rarely have disease problemsUnaware that disease is presentDo not get the disease(s) properly diagnosedDo not know where to purchase vaccinesVaccines are too expensive because theyusually come in 500, 1000, or 10000 dose vials
Do I need to vaccinate my birds?
You may not need tovaccinate your birds if:
Your flock is “closed”, i.e.new birds are neverintroduced and birds thatleave your farm are notYour flock has beendisease-free and there areno diseases that areprevalent in your area
flickr.com/photos/41505728@N00/245688578
 
Do I need to vaccinate my birds?
Consider vaccinating yourbirds if:
Your birds have experienceddisease problems in the pastYou take your birds to poultryshows or swa meetinsYou buy birds from hatcheries,bird auctions, or other sourcesand add them to your flock
flickr.com/photos/31169339@N07/3863356745
 
2
What types of vaccines can I use?
Vaccines for diseasescaused by viruses
Live attenuated virus vaccines
Contain live attenuatedviruses that reproduce in thehost and stimulate antibody
Vaccines for diseasescaused by bacteria
Live attenuated or killedpreparations of bacteria thatstimulate antibody production
Commonly called
bacterins 
production
Killed (inactivated) virusvaccines
Contain killed virus particlesthat stimulate antibodyproduction
www.thepoultrysite.com/focus/intervet-scherin...
 
Recommended Vaccination Program for Chickens
AgeDiseaseRoute
1 dayMareks-subcutaneous
(inject under skin at back of neck)
10 andNewcastle/-drinking water, eye drop, or intranasal35 daysBronchitis (ND/IB)6 wksLaryngotracheitis-eye drop
(use tissue culture origin or TCO vaccine)
8 wksAvian Enceph.-drinking water10 wksFowl pox-wing web12 wks Fowl cholera-subcutaneous12 wksND/IB
-
drinking water, eye drop, or intranasal6 months(repeat vaccination of pullet and layer flocks9 monthsat 3-month intervals to maintain immunity)12 months15 monthsORvaccinate with killed vaccine via intramuscular routeat time of housing (18-20 wks)
Source: Penn State Poultry Health Handbook, 4
th
ed.
Recommended Vaccination Program for PurchasedPullets and Mature Chickens
AgeDiseaseRoute
PlacementND (B-1)-drinking water, eye-drop, or intranasalIB (Mass)(DO NOT SPRAY)4 wks laterND (LaSota)-drinking water, eye-drop, or intranasalIB (Mass or Conn)OR
 
e /-ntramuscuar
(no further ND/IB vaccination needed)
Repeat at 12 wkND (LaSota)-drinking water, eye-drop, or intranasalintervals
(if using 
IB (Mass or Conn)
live ND/IB)
Source: Penn State Poultry Health Handbook, 4
th
ed.
Recommended Vaccination Program for Turkeys
AgeDiseaseRoute
1 dayTurkey Coryza -live Bordetella vaccine given intranasally(Rhinotracheitis)at hatchery14 daysTurkey Coryza -live culture vaccine via drinking water21 daysNewcastle Disease-live B1 or PMV3 via drinking water28 daysHemmorhagic Enteritis-live culture vaccine via drinking water
 
6 wksFowl Cholera-live culture vaccine via drinking water orkilled vaccine by intramuscular injection8 wks Newcastle Disease-live virus vaccine via drinking water10 wksFowl Cholera-2
nd
FC vaccination: live or killed vaccine(last dose for hens)12 wksNewcastle Disease-live vaccine viadrinking water14 wksFowl Cholera-live culture vaccine (last dose for toms)
Source: Penn State Poultry Health Handbook, 4
th
ed.
Tips for Successful Drinking Water Vaccination*
In hot weather, keep waterfrom birds for 1 hr prior tovaccination; increase to 2 hrsin cold weatherScrub waterers thoroughly withbrush, removing all dirt,
www.vactora.com/image/5.jpg*adapted from Penn State Poultry Health Handbook, 4
th
ed.
droppings, and slime. Makesure everything is clean beforemixing and administeringvaccine. DO NOT USEBLEACH AS IT WILLINACTIVATE THE LIVEVACCINE.
www.vintagegardengal.com
Tips for Successful Drinking Water Vaccination
Provide clean, pure (potable) water for your poultry at all times.Store and handle all vaccines properly:
 –Keep vaccines refrigerated until immediately before use. Protect from heat anddirect sunlight at all times. –Use vaccines before their expiration date. –Burn or disinfect empty vaccine containers before discarding. An open vaccine.
Prepare the vaccine/powdered skim milk/water mixture in a cleancontainer.
 –Mix powdered skim milk with water (3 oz packet of skim milk powder per 10 galwater) in a dispensing container. The milk proteins will neutralize small amountsof sanitizer and other contaminants that may be present in the water. Skim milkalso keeps the virus alive and prolongs its potency. –Reconstitute the vaccine per manufacturers directions. –Add the reconstituted vaccine to the milk/water solution.Mix thoroughly.
 
3
Tips for Successful Drinking Water Vaccination
Immediately administer the milk-vaccine/water mixture. Let the birdsdrink.Encourage birds to get to the waterers and drink the vaccine. Thewater-vaccine mixture must be consumed within 15 to 20 minutes.After all birds have consumed the water-vaccine mixture, turn on thereguar waer suppy or empy waerers w res waer.Record the date of vaccination, vaccine serial number, and otherpertinent information on the flock’s health chart.
Subcutaneous Vaccination
www.jphpk.gov.my/English/p18bird.jpg
Eye Drop Vaccination
www.itswild.org/images/page_image/poutry.jpg
Wing Web Vaccination
www.doae.go.th/.../detail/vaccine/images/32.gif 
Intramuscular Vaccination
www.daylife.com/photo/03Y1b2k3zp174
Final Thoughts on Vaccination
Vaccination is no substitute for goodmanagement.Never vaccinate for a disease that is not presentin your flock or area/region. This will onlyintroduce a new disease to your birds.Vaccines do not provide 100% protection.Diseases are best prevented through goodbiosecurity, nutrition, and management.

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