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Programs and Social Work Contributions for Chita Putri STKS Bandung

Programs and Social Work Contributions for Chita Putri STKS Bandung

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Published by Joko Setiawan

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Published by: Joko Setiawan on May 06, 2010
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Translate From English to Bahasa Indonesia Session IIIPROGRAMS AND SOCIAL WORK CONTRIBUTIONSBERBAGAI MACAM PROGRAM DAN KONTRIBUSI PEKERJAAN SOSIAL
With its historical roots in ecological thinking about human problems, social work is acentral profession in the fight against child maltreatment. With new thinking abouthow to apply preventive approaches to all phases of work with child maltreatment, wecan organize intervention approaches to all needs of families and children at particularpoints in the child maltreatment cycle. Social work’s “strengths” orientation (Saleeby1991) is another asset in working with maltreating families. With a strengthsorientation, social workers are in a position to identify and build on resiliency andprotective factors against child maltreatment and its sequelae. It is important to notethat while social work is a central profession in the treatment and care for maltreatingfamilies, interventions are increasingly relying on multidisciplinary approaches and oninterventions that use paraprofessionals as key treatment providers; thus, socialworkers must have the ability to work in, and to coordinate, an interdisciplinarycontext.
Dengan akar sejarah dalam pemikiran ekologis tentang masalah manusia, pekerjaansosial adalah profesi utama dalam memerangi penganiayaan anak. Dengan pemikiranbaru tentang bagaimana menerapkan pendekatan preventif untuk semua tahap pekerjaan dengan penganiayaan anak, kita dapat mengatur pendekatan intervensiuntuk semua kebutuhan keluarga dan anak-anak pada titik tertentu dalam siklus penganiayaan anak. Karya sosial "kekuatan" orientasi (Saleeby 1991) adalah aset laindalam bekerja dengan maltreating keluarga. Dengan kekuatan orientasi, pekerjasosial berada dalam posisi untuk mengidentifikasi dan membangun ketahanan danfaktor pelindung terhadap penganiayaan anak dan sequelae. Penting untuk dicatat bahwa sementara pekerjaan sosial adalah profesi utama dalam pengobatan dan perawatan bagi keluarga maltreating, intervensi yang semakin bergantung pada pendekatan multidisipliner dan intervensi yang menggunakan kunci paraprofessionalssebagai penyedia perawatan; demikian, pekerja sosial harus memiliki kemampuanuntuk bekerja dalam, dan untuk mengkoordinasikan, sebuah konteks interdisipliner.
Gordon (1988) introduced a model of prevention that has been adopted at theNational Institutes of Health (National Advisory Mental Health Council Workgroup onMental Disorders Prevention Research 1998). Adapted to child maltreatment, thismodel includes the following levels of prevention:
Universal prevention
for childmaltreatment targets the general public that has not been identified on the basis of risk is known to be higher than average for child abuse and neglect;
Indicated  prevention
targets families with early signs of child maltreatment of deleteriousparenting behaviors; and
relapse and comorbidity prevention
targets families who1
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 Arranged by Joko Setiawan 2 C REHSOS 2008
 
Translate From English to Bahasa Indonesia Session III
have known histories of child maltreatment. The goals of relapse and comorbidityprevention are to rehabilitate the parent and to reduce long-term harm or comorbidityof mental illness, physical disorders, or behavioral problems in the children. Socialinterventions for child maltreatment can be conceptualized in these four categories,which are used as a heuristic tool rather than as a strict typology. They are bestviewed as a continuum rather than a strict typology because levels of need and levelsof prevention flow into one another rather than manifest themselves as discretecategories. There are no clear dividing points between risk for abuse and early abusivepatterns, or between early neglect and entrenched neglectful interaction patterns.
Gordon (1988) memperkenalkan model pencegahan yang telah diadopsi di NationalInstitutes of Health (Nasional Dewan Penasehat Kesehatan Mental PI pada PenelitianPencegahan Gangguan Mental 1998). Disesuaikan dengan penganiayaan anak, modelini mencakup tingkat pencegahan: Universal pencegahan untuk anak sasaran penganiayaan masyarakat umum yang belum diidentifikasi berdasarkan risikodiketahui lebih tinggi daripada rata-rata untuk anak pelecehan dan penelantaran;menunjukkan target pencegahan keluarga dengan tanda-tanda awal penganiayaananak dari orangtua merusak perilaku dan pencegahan kambuh dan target comorbidity keluarga yang telah dikenal anak sejarah penganiayaan. Tujuan pencegahan kambuhdan comorbidity adalah untuk merehabilitasi orangtua dan untuk mengurangikerugian jangka panjang atau comorbidity penyakit mental, gangguan fisik, ataumasalah perilaku anak-anak. Intervensi sosial untuk penganiayaan anak dapadikonseptualisasikan dalam empat kategori, yang digunakan sebagai alat heuristik daripada sebagai tipologi yang ketat. Mereka adalah terbaik dilihat sebagai sebuahkontinum daripada tipologi yang ketat karena tingkat kebutuhan dan tingka pencegahan mengalir ke satu sama lain daripada mewujudkan diri mereka sebagaikategori terpisah. Tidak ada titik pemisah yang jelas antara risiko untu penyalahgunaan dan awal pola kasar, atau antara awal dan tertanam lalaimengabaikan pola interaksi.
Universal Prevention
. Many parent and family educational services provided bysocial workers in health care, schools, and in family and community agenciesconstitute universal prevention, particularly if the services are wellness oriented andnot restricted to a known risk group. Much of social work practice in maternal andchild health care constitutes universal prevention of child maltreatment. Publiceducation campaigns like those that air on public service television announcementsare universal prevention programs. Unfortunately, these are seldom evaluated fortheir effectiveness. Universal policies such as the Family Leave Act have universalchild maltreatment prevention aspects to them. While many social workers intuitively2
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“know” that such family support programs reduce child maltreatment, there is littleempirical evidence to support this assertion.
Pencegahan universal. Banyak orangtua dan keluarga pelayanan pendidikan yangdiberikan oleh pekerja sosial dalam pelayanan kesehatan, sekolah, dan dalamkeluarga dan lembaga masyarakat merupakan pencegahan universal, terutama jikaberorientasi layanan kesehatan dan tidak terbatas pada kelompok risiko yangdiketahui. Sebagian besar praktek kerja sosial di ibu dan anak merupakan perawatankesehatan pencegahan universal penganiayaan anak. Kampanye pendidikan publik seperti udara yang pelayanan publik pengumuman televisi bersifat universal program pencegahan. Sayangnya, ini jarang dievaluasi efektivitas mereka. Kebijakan universalseperti Undang Tinggalkan Keluarga memiliki anak universal aspek pencegahan penganiayaan kepada mereka. Sementara banyak pekerja sosial secara intuitif "tahu"bahwa program-program dukungan keluarga seperti anak mengurangi penganiayaan,ada sedikit bukti empiris yang mendukung pernyataan ini.
One of the few examples of universal prevention programs is a school-based child sexabuse prevention program. Such programs are now incorporated in the curricula of many school districts, although the empirical findings on these program’seffectiveness is mixed. In a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of sex abuse preventionprograms, Rispens, Aleman, and Goudena (1997) found that the sixteen programsreviewed were successful in teaching children sex abuse concepts and self-protectionskills, especially if the program included both components. There was reasonableretention of concepts learned, particularly when there was program repetition,boosters, in subsequent years. Programs were typically not examined for effects inreducing the incidence of sexual abuse.
Satu dari sedikit contoh program pencegahan universal adalah anak berbasis sekolah program pencegahan pelecehan seksual. Program semacam itu sekarang dimasukkandalam kurikulum sekolah banyak distrik, meskipun temuan empiris mengenaiefektivitas program ini dicampur. Dalam meta-analisis tentang efektivitas program- program pencegahan penyalahgunaan seks, Rispens, Aleman, dan Goudena (1997)menemukan bahwa program-program enam belas ditinjau berhasil dalam mengajar anak-anak pelecehan seksual konsep dan keterampilan perlindungan diri, terutama jika program termasuk kedua komponen . Ada akal konsep retensi belajar, terutamaketika ada program pengulangan, penguat, dalam tahun-tahun berikutnya. Programbiasanya tidak diperiksa untuk efek dalam mengurangi insiden pelecehan seksual.
Life cycle family support programs are another approach to universal support of parents and prevention of child maltreatment (Price et al. 1989; Weiss 1989; Ziglerand Black 1989). Family support programs are available through community centers,3
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