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Translate Women Support Group for Chita Putri

Translate Women Support Group for Chita Putri

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Published by Joko Setiawan

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Published by: Joko Setiawan on May 06, 2010
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TRANSLATE CAHAPTER II
Ality evolves from empathy, relationship authenticity, and relationship differentiation, andinvolves openness to change and healing on both sides. Therapy requires mutual trust,respect, and growth. While the therapist exercises certain kinds of authority and the clientmoves into a place of vulnerability, the attitude is one of the empowerment rather than one of having power over (Jordan, 1997b, p.143). The therapy relationship should never include anattitude of superiority; both members of the interaction must be open to influence by theother and willing to risk the change and uncertainty that accompanies growth.
 Ality berevolusi dari empati, hubungan keaslian, dan hubungan diferensiasi, dan melibatkanketerbukaan untuk berubah dan penyembuhan di kedua belah pihak. Terapi memerlukansaling percaya, menghormati, dan pertumbuhan. Sementara latihan terapis beberapa jenisotoritas dan klien bergerak ke tempat kerentanan, sikap adalah salah satu pemberdayaanbukan salah seorang dari mempunyai kekuasaan atas (Yordania, 1997b, p.143). Hubunganterapi tidak boleh mencakup sikap superioritas; kedua anggota interaksi harus terbuka untuk mempengaruhi oleh lain dan bersedia mengambil risiko perubahan dan ketidakpastian yangmenyertai pertumbuhan.
Some Clinicians have expressed concern about the meaning of mutuality in therapy. Surrey(1997) clarifies that is does not mean disclosing anything and everything with no sense of purpose, impact, timing, or responsibility. An ethic of mutuality does not mandate disclosingfacts or answering questions. Decisions about disclosure depend on the situation and thepersonal and relational aspects of the therapy at any given time. Jordan (1991), writing on theimportant connection between empathy and self-boundaries, notes,
Beberapa klinisi telah menyatakan keprihatinan tentang makna mutualitas dalam terapi.Surrey (1997) menjelaskan bahwa ini tidak berarti mengungkapkan apa pun dengan tidak masuk akal tujuan, dampak, waktu, atau tanggung jawab. Etika tidak mutualitas mandat mengungkapkan fakta atau menjawab pertanyaan. Keputusan tentang pengungkapantergantung pada situasi dan pribadi dan relasional aspek dari terapi pada waktu tertentu.Yordania (1991), menulis di hubungan penting antara empati dan batas diri, catatan,
Empathy always involves surrendering to feelings and active cognitive structuring; in order forempathy to occur, self boundaries must be flexible… this involves temporary identifications withthe other’s state during which one is aware that the source of the affect is in the other. In thefinal resolution period the affect subsides and one’s self feels more separate; therapeutically,the final step involves making use of this experience to help the patient understand his/herinner world better. (p.3)
Empati selalu melibatkan perasaan dan menyerah pada struktur kognitif aktif; agar empatiterjadi, batas-batas diri haruslah fleksibel ... ini melibatkan identifikasi sementara dengannegara lain di mana orang menyadari bahwa sumber yang mempengaruhi adalah di tanganlainnya. Pada akhir periode resolusi berkurang dan mempengaruhi diri seseorang merasa lebihterpisah; terapi, langkah terakhir melibatkan memanfaatkan pengalaman ini untuk membantu pasien memahami / dunia batinnya lebih baik. (p.3)
It seems important in discussing a feminist model of practice to consider whether the genderof the therapist is significant in the treatment dyad. Kaplan (1984, p.3) causions that “femaletherapist working with women bring to their role some sense of their core self… as a relationalbeing, and also some internalized experience of being in a dominant position.” Although wefeel that it may be important for some women to work with female therapist, we also think theopportunity to have an authentic and emphatic therapeutic relationship with a man could bevery healing. The challenge for men would be to avoid the possibility that they might
 
empathize not with the patient, but with the man she may be talking about, particularly if themale therapist feels identified with him (Kaplan, 1984).
Sepertinya penting dalam membahas model feminis praktek untuk mempertimbangkanapakah jenis kelamin terapis adalah signifikan dalam perawatan angka dua. Kaplan (1984, p.3) causions bahwa "terapis perempuan bekerja dengan perempuan membawa peranmereka rasa jati diri mereka ... sebagai seorang yang relasional, dan juga beberapa pengalaman diinternalisasi berada dalam posisi dominan." Meskipun kami merasa bahwa itumungkin penting bagi beberapa wanita untuk bekerja dengan terapis wanita, kami jugaberpikir kesempatan untuk memiliki terapeutik otentik dan tegas hubungan dengan seorang pria bisa menjadi sangat menyembuhkan. Tantangan bagi orang-orang akan menghindarikemungkinan bahwa mereka mungkin tidak berempati dengan pasien, tapi dengan pria yangmungkin bicarakan, terutama jika terapis laki-laki merasa diidentifikasi dengan dia (Kaplan,1984).
 Traditional emphasis in the field has been on the neutrality of the therapist and the negativeimpact of therapist involvement. The relational psychoanalytic models of psychotherapymoved away from the neutrality construct (see Chapters 6 and 7 on object relations and onself psychology for further discussion), highlighting the interpersonal and inter subjectivenature of the therapeutic relationship. Self-in-relation theories reframe these concepts asrelational reciprocity. Surrey suggest it is more likely that therapist abuse come from a lack of authenticity, openness, and responsiveness, and defines this as
relational abuse
. Jordan andcolleagues (Jordan, Miller, Jordan, Kaplan, Stiver, & Surrey, 1990) discussed the negativeimpact of emotional neutrality and non responsiveness in therapy with sexually abusedpatients and incest survivors. Writing on the development of transference, Stiver (1997) notesthat a lack of neutrality does not seem to ward it off. Historically, we are taught that thetherapist’s neutrality and non gratification of the client are supposed to facilitate the negativetransference, allowing for the release of angry feelings toward significant early figures (mostlymother) and their projection onto the therapist. However, Stiver (1997, p.38) makes anexcellent point that “These angry outbursts toward the therapist may be more an artifact of this therapy model itself, rather than an expression of negative transference.” The therapist’swithholding and non gratifiying stance and the consequent lack of responsiveness may beenormously frustrating and alienating for the client , who responds with anger, despair, andother negative reactions.
Penekanan tradisional di lapangan telah di netralitas terapis dan dampak negatif keterlibatanterapis. Model relasional psikoterapi psikoanalitik menjauh dari netralitas membangun (lihat Bab 6 dan 7 pada hubungan-hubungan objek dan psikologi diri untuk diskusi lebih lanjut),menyoroti interpersonal dan antar sifat subjektif hubungan terapeutik. Self-in-hubunganmengubah kerangka teori konsep-konsep ini sebagai relasional timbal-balik. Surrey menyarankan itu lebih mungkin bahwa pelecehan terapis datang dari kurangnya keaslian,keterbukaan, dan responsif, dan mendefinisikan relasional ini sebagai pelecehan. Yordaniadan rekan (Yordania, Miller, Yordania, Kaplan, Stiver, & Surrey, 1990) membahas dampak negatif netralitas emosional dan non responsif dalam terapi dengan pasien mengalami pelecehan seksual dan incest selamat. Menulis pada pengembangan transferensi, Stiver (1997) mencatat bahwa kurangnya netralitas tampaknya tidak bangsal it off. Secara historis,kita diajarkan bahwa terapis netralitas dan non kepuasan klien diharapkan untumemfasilitasi transferensi negatif, sehingga memungkinkan untuk membebaskan perasaanmarah signifikan terhadap angka awal (kebanyakan ibu) dan proyeksi mereka ke terapis.Namun, Stiver (1997, p.38) membuat jalur yang sangat baik bahwa "ledakan marah inimenuju terapis mungkin lebih sebuah artefak model terapi ini sendiri, bukan ekspresitransferensi negatif." Terapis's Pemotongan dan non gratifiying sikap dan akibatnya kurang
 
responsif mungkin sangat frustrasi dan mengasingkan bagi klien, yang menanggapinyadengan kemarahan, putus asa, dan reaksi negatif lainnya.
Self-in-Relation Theory and Women’s Groups
Several authors promote groups as the context within which to focus on their uniqueexperience as women (Bernandez, 1978; Fedele&Harrington, 1990; Goodman&Allan, 1995;McWilliams&Stein, 1987). Due to the frequent devaluation of women’s need for connection toothers in the larger society, groups provide an important place for women to validate eachother’s development. Women feel disconnected when they are in relationships that are notresponsive to their needs or when they feel they have no impact. This contributes to low self-esteem. Groups provide comradery. Women in groups can experience themselves having aneffect on each other’s lives, and that is empowering. From a relational perspective, poweremerges from and enhances connection (Fedele&Harrington, 1990). In groups, women canalso develop awareness of the cultural standards of their gender group and can support eachother in challenging these norms.
Beberapa kelompok mempromosikan penulis sebagai konteks di mana untuk berfokus pada pengalaman unik mereka sebagai wanita (Bernandez, 1978; Fedele & Harrington, 1990;Goodman & Allan, 1995; McWilliams & Stein, 1987). Karena sering devaluasi kebutuhan perempuan untuk koneksi ke orang lain dalam masyarakat luas, kelompok memberikantempat penting bagi perempuan untuk memvalidasi perkembangan masing-masing. Wanitamerasa terputus ketika mereka berada dalam hubungan yang tidak responsif terhadapkebutuhan mereka atau ketika mereka merasa mereka tidak memiliki dampak. Hal inimemberikan kontribusi untuk harga diri yang rendah. Kelompok memberikan persaudaraan.Perempuan dalam kelompok dapat mengalami sendiri mempunyai efek pada kehidupan satusama lain, dan itu adalah memberdayakan. Dari perspektif relasional, kekuasaan danmeningkatkan muncul dari sambungan (Fedele & Harrington, 1990). Dalam kelompok, perempuan juga dapat mengembangkan kesadaran tentang standar budaya kelompogender mereka dan dapat saling mendukung dalam menantang norma-norma ini.
Schiller (1995) stresses the importance of connection for woman’s sense of self and the waysin which this need influence how women approach conflict. She offers a stage modelparticular to women’s groups based on self –in-relation theory. Stage one of the relationalmodel, preaffiliation is fairly typical of other group models. Stage two, establishing a relationalbase with peers, is in contrast to moving into a phase of power and control more common ingroups. This is a time when the women discover shared experiences and seek approval andconnection from the members and the group leader. This sense of connectedness to others inthe group is what contributes to a sense of savety. Safety is a perquisite for women to be ableto share with each other. Stage three, mutuality and interpersonal empathy, is an extensionof stage two, when the women are able to develop trust as they share and begin to respectdifferences. The role of the therapist is crucial at this juncture as she remains focused on therelational context within which the sharing takes place. The therapist does this by helping thewomen find ways to understand each other even when they may differ. Jordan (1991), refersto this as a type of emphatic attunement marked by intimacy and mutual intersubjectibity.Stage four, challenge and change, is when the women more directly begin to questionthemselves, each other, and the leader. They are able to risk the direct expression of angerand disappointment because they feel secure in the connections that have been established.Stage five, termination, is in keeping with standard practice of endings with groups.
Schiller (1995) menekankan pentingnya koneksi wanita kesadaran diri dan cara-cara di manakebutuhan ini mempengaruhi bagaimana pendekatan wanita konflik. Ia menawarkan model

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