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Mechanical Vibration

Mechanical Vibration

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Published by Khalil Raza
Vibratometer & Acceleratometer
Vibratometer & Acceleratometer

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Khalil Raza on May 06, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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May 6, 2010
Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]1
Submitted to Respected Sir, Abdul Ghani Memon Shb
May 6
By Khalil Raza Bhatti (07ME40), QUEST,Nawabshah – Pakistan.
May 6, 2010Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]2
Q.No.1 Define different types of vibration measuring instruments such as vibro-meter and accelerometer.Particularly explain in detail about accelerometer also designs the same?
refers to mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as themotion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.Vibration is occasionally "desirable". For example the motion of a tuning fork, the reed in a woodwind instrument orharmonica, or the cone of a loudspeaker is desirable vibration, necessary for the correct functioning of the variousdevices.More often, vibration is undesirable, wasting energy and creating unwanted sound – noise. For example, the vibrationalmotions of engines, electric motors, or any mechanical device in operation are typically unwanted. Such vibrations canbe caused by imbalances in the rotating parts, uneven friction, the meshing of gear teeth, etc. Careful designs usuallyminimize unwanted vibrations.The study of sound and vibration are closely related. Sound, or "pressure waves", are generated by vibrating structures(e.g. vocal cords); these pressure waves can also induce the vibration of structures (e.g. ear drum). Hence, when tryingto reduce noise it is often a problem in trying to reduce vibration.
Types of vibration
Free vibration
occurs when a mechanical system is set off with an initial input and then allowed to vibrate freely.Examples of this type of vibration are pulling a child back on a swing and then letting go or hitting a tuning fork andletting it ring. The mechanical system will then vibrate at one or more of its "natural frequencies" and damp down tozero.
Forced vibration
is when an alternating force or motion is applied to a mechanical system. Examples of this type of vibration include a shaking washing machine due to an imbalance, transportation vibration (caused by truck engine,springs, road, etc), or the vibration of a building during an earthquake. In forced vibration the frequency of thevibration is the frequency of the force or motion applied, with order of magnitude being dependent on the actualmechanical system.
May 6, 2010Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]3
is a device that measures proper acceleration, the accelerationexperienced relative to freefall.Single- and multi-axis models are available to detect magnitude and direction of theacceleration as a vector quantity, and can be used to sense position, vibration and shock.Micromachined accelerometers are increasingly present in portable electronic devices andvideo game controllers, to detect the position of the device or provide for game input.
Three types of accelerometers are currently in production:
 Pendular accelerometers : state-of-the-art strap-down navigation and guidance systems arecurrently based on this technology. Their measurement range can reach up to one hundredg's. Their precision can reach up to one in one hundred thousand for the most demandingapplications.Theses devices have been in production in significant quantities for many years.> The Sagem family includes among others the A600 and the A305.Vibrating Beam Accelerometers : this technology has been developed for severalyears and is currently under production for tactical products. It offers cost-effective performances, a small size and is well suited for state-of-the-art digitalsystems due to their digital output.> The AD301 accelerometer is used on the Sagem AASM navigation system.MEMS-based accelerometers : Sagem is also manufacturing the cost effectiveMEMS-based ACSIL accelerometer, based on a micro silicon chip pendulum. It isused for intermediate precision needs and other stabilization purposes.
How to design an Accelerometer?
The design specifications and parameters are required to take in consideration to design an accelerometer are:The Bandwidth = Hz,The Sensitivity =pF/G,The Dynamic range +/- = G,

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