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KGGUnit5

KGGUnit5

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Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide
44
Autumn 2004
Unit 5: Our Classroom
In this unit, you will learn how to:
\ue000describe the location of objects using
o
the locative particle \u2013\uc5d0
o
locational postpositions
o
the word\uc5b4\ub514 "where";

\ue000link two nouns using \u2013\ud558\uace0;
\ue000describe objects using new descriptive verbs;
\ue000use descriptive verbs pre-nominally (like adjectives);

Grammatical Notes
Locating Objects using the Particle \u2013\uc5d0

The locative particle \u2013\uc5d0 is attached to a noun to indicate that the noun
serves as the place in which the subject of the sentence is located. As
such, the particle \u2013\uc5d0 is frequently used with the verbs of existence. The
basic pattern is this:

subject noun +\uc774/\uac00
location noun +\uc5d0
verb of existence
\uae40\uc218\ubbf8\uac00 \ubbf8\uad6d\uc5d0\uc788\uc5b4\uc694.
Sumi Kim is in the United States.
\ubc15\uc120\uc0dd\ub2d8\uc774 \ud559\uad50\uc5d0\uacc4\uc138 \uc694.
Mr. Park is at school.
\uc6b0\ub9ac \uc9d1\uc5d0 \uace0\uc591\uc774\uac00 \uc5c6\uc5b4\uc694.
At our house there is no cat.
("We don't have a cat.")

In the first sentence above, Sumi Kim is the subject, and so is marked by
the nominative particle \u2013\uac00. The noun\ubbf8\uad6d 'United States' names Sumi's
current location, and so it marked by the locative particle \u2013\uc5d0. In the
second sentence, note the use of the honorific verb of existence,\uacc4 \uc2dc\ub2e4.
In the third sentence, the locative phrase \uc6b0\ub9ac \uc9d1\uc5d0 'at our house' has
been moved to the front of the sentence, while the subject of the verb,

\uace0\uc591\uc774 'cat' (marked with the nominative particle \u2013\uac00) is immediately

adjacent to the verb of non-existence,\uc5c6 \ub2e4. By moving the location to the front, we emphasize that at our house there is no cat, but that there might be a cat at someone else's house.

It's important to stress that regardless of the relative order of the subject
and the location words, the two sentences:
\uc6b0\ub9ac \uc9d1\uc5d0 \uace0\uc591\uc774\uac00 \uc5c6\uc5b4\uc694
and\uace0\uc591\uc774\uac00 \uc6b0\ub9ac \uc9d1\uc5d0 \uc5c6\uc5b4\uc694
D.J. Silva
Draft \u2013 Do not cite!
revised 9/18/2004
45

\u2026 are both perfectly grammatical. Moreover, both convey the same
basic information: at a given place ('our house') a certain object ('a cat')
does not exist. The difference between them lies in the emphasis that the
speaker wishes to convey.

Locating Objects using Postpostions (along with the Particle \u2013\uc5d0)

The locative particle \u2013\uc5d0 is very vague in its meaning. To further specify
the location of an object relative to some other object, Korean uses
elements called postpositions. The postpositions of Korean are similar to
the prepositions of English: the main difference is how the two languages
create the post-/pre-positional phrases.

\ucc45\uc0c1\uc704\uc5d0
literally, desk-on-at
on the desk
\uc758\uc790\ubc11\uc5d0
chair-under-at
under the chair
\ubb38\uc606\uc5d0
door-beside-at
beside the door,
next to the door
\ucc45\uc55e\uc5d0
book-in.front.of-at
in front of the book
\uc9d1\ub4a4\uc5d0
house-behind-at
behind the house

As we can see above, Korean postpositions are placed after (that is,
"post") the noun that names the location:\ucc45\uc0c1\uc704 desk-on. In English,
prepositions are placed before (that is, "pre") the noun that names the
location: on the desk.

The most common locational postpositions in Korean are:
\uc704
on, on top of
\ubc11
under, beneath, below
(also\uc544\ub798)
\uc606
beside, next to
\uc55e
in front of
\ub4a4
behind
\uc18d
inside of, surrounded by
\uc548
in (a room or other similar space)

Given that these postpositions are very often used to indicate the location
of the subject, it's extremely common that they appear with the locative
particle \u2013\uc5d0.

\ucc45\uc774 \ucc45\uc0c1\uc704\uc5d0\uc788\uc5b4\uc694. The book is on (top of) the desk.
or There's a book on (top of) the desk.
\uace0\uc591\uc774\uac00 \uc9d1\ub4a4\uc5d0\uc788\uc5b4\uc694.
The cat is behind the house.
orThere's a cat behind the house.
Beginning Korean: A Grammar Guide
46
Autumn 2004
\uc5f0\ud544\uc774 \uc758\uc790\ubc11\uc5d0 \uc788\uc5b4\uc694.
The pencil is under the chair.
orThere's a pencil under the chair.
\uac00\ubc29\uc18d\uc5d0 \ud39c\uc774 \uc788\uc5b4\uc694?
Is the pen inside the bag?
orIs there a pen inside the bag?
Asking about the Location of Objects and People using\uc5b4\ub514
To inquire about the location of a person or thing, one uses the word
\uc5b4\ub514 'where'. Since \uc5b4\ub514 is a question word that seeks locational
information, it is often the case that the locative particle \u2013\uc5d0 is attached
to\uc5b4\ub514.

In Korean, a question word such as\uc5b4\ub514 is not moved to the front of the sentence (as is done in English). Rather,\uc5b4\ub514 occupies the same location in the sentence that the corresponding answer would occupy.

\uadf8 \ucc45\uc740 \uc5b4\ub514\uc5d0\uc788\uc5b4\uc694?
Where's that book?
(As for that book, where is (it)?)
[\uadf8 \ucc45\uc740]\uac00 \ubc29\uc18d\uc5d0\uc788\uc5b4 \uc694.
[That book] is in the bag.
Q:\uae40\uc120\uc0dd\ub2d8\uc740 \uc5b4\ub514\uc5d0\uacc4\uc138 \uc694? Where's Mrs. Kim?
A:\uad50\uc2e4\uc548\uc5d0\uacc4 \uc138\uc694.
(She's) in the classroom.
Q:\uc5f0\ud544\uc774 \uc5b4\ub514\uc5d0\uc788\uc5b4\uc694?
Where are the pencils?
A:\ucef4\ud4e8\ud130\ub4a4 \uc5d0\uc788\uc5b4\uc694.
(There's one) behind the computer.
or(There are some) behind the computer.

Note that when answering a question with\uc5b4\ub514, it isnot necessary to
repeat the subject. You do, however, need to explicitly mention the
location, and remember to mark it with the locative particle \u2013\uc5d0.

Using \u2013\ud558\uace0 to Conjoin Two Nouns

The particle \u2013\ud558\uace0 is one of several ways to connect two nouns in a way analogous to the conjunction "and" in English. To use \u2013\ud558\uace0, attach it to the first noun:

\ubc25\ud558\uace0 \ubb3c
cooked rice and water
\ucc45\ud558\uace0 \uacf5\ucc45
book(s) and notebook(s)
\uac1c\ud558\uace0 \uace0\uc591\uc774
dog(s) and cat(s)

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