If a metal is lightly stressed, a temporary deformation, presumably permitted by an elastic displacement of the atoms in the space lattice, takes place. Removal of the stress results in a gradual return of the metal to its original shape anddimensions. In 1678 an English scientist named Robert Hooke ran experimentsthat provided data that showed that in the elastic range of a material, strain isproportional to stress. The elongation of the bar is directly proportional to thetensile force and the length of the bar and inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area and the modulus of elasticity.Hook’s experimental law may be given by:
Where:P = force producing extension of bar (lbf)
= length of bar (in.) A = cross-sectional area of bar (in.2)d = total elongation of bar (in.)E = elastic constant of the material, called the Modulus of Elasticity,or Young's Modulus (lbf/in.2)The quantity E, the ratio of the unit stress to the unit strain, is the modulus of elasticity of the material in tension or compression and is often called Young'sModulus.
: Izhar Mithal Jiskani