is based on detecting disorder of the networkswhich is caused by the existence of a wormholeinside the network. Since wormhole attacks are passive, this algorithm uses a hop-counting tech-niqueasaprobeproceduretodetectwormholeat-tacks, then reconstructs local maps in each node,and after that, uses a feature called “diameter” todetect abnormalities caused by wormholes. Themain advantage of using a distributed wormholedetection algorithm is that such an algorithm can provide the approximate location of a wormhole,which may be useful information for further de- fense mechanisms. Simulations show that the pro- posed detection method has both a low False Tol-eration Rate (FTR) and a low False Detection Rate (FDR) in detecting wormhole attacks.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) [1, 15] arean emerging technology consisting of small, low-power, and low-cost devices that integrate limitedcomputation, sensing, and radio communicationcapabilities. This technology has the potentialto provide infrastructures for numerous applica-tions, such as surveillance, healthcare, industryautomation, and military uses.Currently, most applications in WSNs assumethat they are deployed in a trusted environment,but it is possible that a WSN is to be deployedin an untrusted environments, and so dealing withsecurity issues will become a central requirement.In this situation, an adversary can disable thefunctionality of a WSN by interfering with packettransmissions inside the networks with differentattacks such as wormhole attacks, sybil attacks, jamming, and packet injection attacks .This paper focuses on wormhole attack detec-tion [2, 7, 13]. A wormhole attack doesn’t re-quire knowing the cryptographic infrastructure of the sensor network, and thus it puts an attacker ina very powerful position relative to other nodesin the network, compared to other attacks suchas sybil and packet injection attacks, which usu-ally utilize vulnerabilities in the infrastructure of