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Calculus 3

# Calculus 3

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Three Dimensional Space, Partial Derivatives, Applications of Partial Derivatives, Multiple Integrals, Line Integrals, Surface Integrals
Three Dimensional Space, Partial Derivatives, Applications of Partial Derivatives, Multiple Integrals, Line Integrals, Surface Integrals

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04/12/2013

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CALCULUS III
Paul Dawkins

Calculus III© 2007 Paul Dawkins i http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

Preface ..................................................................................................................................... iii

Outline ..................................................................................................................................... iv

Three Dimensional Space ......................................................................................................... 1

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 1

The 3-D Coordinate System ................................................................................................................. 3

Equations of Lines ............................................................................................................................... 9

Equations of Planes ............................................................................................................................ 15

Functions of Several Variables ........................................................................................................... 24

Vector Functions ................................................................................................................................ 31

Calculus with Vector Functions .......................................................................................................... 40

Tangent, Normal and Binormal Vectors .............................................................................................. 43

Arc Length with Vector Functions ...................................................................................................... 46

Curvature ........................................................................................................................................... 49

Velocity and Acceleration .................................................................................................................. 51

Cylindrical Coordinates ...................................................................................................................... 54

Spherical Coordinates......................................................................................................................... 56

Partial Derivatives ...................................................................................................................62

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 62

Limits ................................................................................................................................................ 63

Partial Derivatives .............................................................................................................................. 68

Interpretations of Partial Derivatives ................................................................................................... 77

Higher Order Partial Derivatives......................................................................................................... 81

Differentials ....................................................................................................................................... 85

Chain Rule ......................................................................................................................................... 86

Directional Derivatives ....................................................................................................................... 96

Applications of Partial Derivatives ....................................................................................... 105

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 105

Tangent Planes and Linear Approximations ....................................................................................... 106

Gradient Vector, Tangent Planes and Normal Lines ........................................................................... 110

Relative Minimums and Maximums .................................................................................................. 112

Absolute Minimums and Maximums ................................................................................................. 121

Lagrange Multipliers ......................................................................................................................... 129

Multiple Integrals .................................................................................................................. 139

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 139

Double Integrals ................................................................................................................................ 140

Iterated Integrals ............................................................................................................................... 144

Double Integrals Over General Regions ............................................................................................. 151

Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates ................................................................................................ 162

Triple Integrals .................................................................................................................................. 173

Triple Integrals in Cylindrical Coordinates......................................................................................... 181

Triple Integrals in Spherical Coordinates ........................................................................................... 184

Change of Variables .......................................................................................................................... 188

Surface Area ..................................................................................................................................... 197

Area and Volume Revisited ............................................................................................................... 200

Line Integrals......................................................................................................................... 201

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 201

Vector Fields..................................................................................................................................... 202

Line Integrals – Part I ........................................................................................................................ 207

Line Integrals – Part II ....................................................................................................................... 218

Line Integrals of Vector Fields .......................................................................................................... 221

Fundamental Theorem for Line Integrals ........................................................................................... 224

Conservative Vector Fields ................................................................................................................ 228

Calculus III© 2007 Paul Dawkins ii http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspxGreen’s Theorem .............................................................................................................................. 235

Curl and Divergence.......................................................................................................................... 243

Surface Integrals ................................................................................................................... 247

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 247

Parametric Surfaces ........................................................................................................................... 248

Surface Integrals ............................................................................................................................... 254

Surface Integrals of Vector Fields ...................................................................................................... 263

Stokes’ Theorem ............................................................................................................................... 273

Divergence Theorem ......................................................................................................................... 278