A Primer on theCivil-Law System
James G. Apple
Chief, Interjudicial Affairs OfﬁceFederal Judicial Center and
Robert P. Deyling
Judicial Fellow Administrative Ofﬁce of the U.S. Courts, 1994–1995
This publication has been prepared and is being published by the FederalJudicial Center at the request of the International Judicial Relations Committeeof the Judicial Conference of the United States.
This Federal Judicial Center publication was undertaken in furtherance of the Center’sstatutory mission to conduct and stimulate research and development for theimprovement of judicial administration. The views expressed are those of the authors andnot necessarily those of the Federal Judicial Center.