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apirp13de6

apirp13de6

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Published by: adelbadr on May 07, 2010
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© API 2009 – All rights reservedDate: 2009-10-05SC 13/WG 7Secretariat: API
 
API Recommended Practice 13D – Rheology and hydraulics of oil-welldrilling fluids
 
Warning
This document is not a Standard. It is distributed for review and comment. It is subject to change withoutnotice and may not be referred to as a Standard.Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.
 
API Recommended Practice 13Dii
Copyright notice
This API document is a Draft Standard and is copyright-protected by API. Except as permitted under theapplicable laws of the user's country, neither this API draft nor any extract from it may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, photocopying, recordingor otherwise, without prior written permission being secured.Requests for permission to reproduce should be addressed to API at the address below.API copyright office1220 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 USATel. + 1 202 682 8375Fax + 1 202E-mail copyright@api.orgWeb www.api.orgReproduction may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement.Violators may be prosecuted.
 
API Recommended Practice 13Diii 
Contents
Page
 
Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................... vi
 
1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................... 1
 
2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................... 2
 
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations ............................................................................... 2
 
4 Fundamentals and fluid models ........................................................................................................ 6
 
4.1 Flow regime principle ......................................................................................................................... 6
 
4.2 Viscosity .............................................................................................................................................. 7
 
4.3 Shear stress ........................................................................................................................................ 8
 
4.4 Shear rate ............................................................................................................................................ 9
 
4.5 Relationship of shear stress and shear rate ................................................................................... 11
 
4.6 Fluid characterization ....................................................................................................................... 11
 
4.7 Newtonian fluids ............................................................................................................................... 11
 
4.8 Non-Newtonian fluids ....................................................................................................................... 11
 
4.9 Rheological models .......................................................................................................................... 12
 
5 Determination of drilling fluid rheological parameters .................................................................. 13
 
5.1 Measurement of rheological parameters ........................................................................................ 13
 
5.2 Rheological models .......................................................................................................................... 15
 
6 Prediction of downhole behaviour of drilling fluids .......................................................................18
 
6.1 Principle ............................................................................................................................................. 18
 
6.2 Circulating temperature predictions in oil-well drilling .................................................................. 18
 
6.3 Prediction of downhole rheology of oil-well drilling fluids ............................................................ 20
 
6.4 Prediction of downhole density of oil-well drilling fluids ..............................................................22
 
7 Pressure-loss modeling ................................................................................................................... 25
 
7.1 Principle ............................................................................................................................................. 25
 
7.2 Basic relationships ........................................................................................................................... 25
 
7.3 Surface-connection pressure loss .................................................................................................. 26
 
7.4 Drillstring and annular frictional pressure loss .............................................................................. 26
 
7.4.1 Principle ............................................................................................................................................. 26
 
7.4.2 Section lengths for pressure-loss calculations .............................................................................. 27
 
7.4.3 Fluid velocity ..................................................................................................................................... 27
 
7.4.4 Hydraulic diameter ............................................................................................................................ 27
 
7.4.5 Rheological parameters ................................................................................................................... 27
 
7.4.6 Shear-rate geometry correction factors .......................................................................................... 28
 
7.4.7 Shear rate at the wall ........................................................................................................................ 29
 
7.4.8 Shear stress at the wall (flow equation) .......................................................................................... 29
 
7.4.9 Flow regime ....................................................................................................................................... 29
 
7.4.10 Critical flow rate ................................................................................................................................ 30
 
7.4.11 Friction factor .................................................................................................................................... 30
 
7.4.12 Frictional pressure loss .................................................................................................................... 31
 
7.4.13 Special considerations ..................................................................................................................... 32
 
7.5 Bit pressure loss ............................................................................................................................... 33
 
7.6 Downhole-tools pressure loss ......................................................................................................... 33
 
7.7 Choke-line pressure loss ................................................................................................................. 34
 
7.8 Casing pressure ................................................................................................................................ 34
 
7.9 Equivalent circulating density (ECD) ............................................................................................... 34
 
8 Swab/surge pressures ...................................................................................................................... 35
 
8.1 Principle ............................................................................................................................................. 35
 
8.2 Controlling parameters ..................................................................................................................... 35
 

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