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Oceanic Navigation Using Advanced GPS by a Haider

Oceanic Navigation Using Advanced GPS by a Haider

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Published by: adnanscientist33 on May 08, 2010
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05/07/2010

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ABSTRACT
Reliable and accurate positions are required for generalmarine navigation and specialized applications such asbuoy tending. The GPS signals are often masked byobstructions, which results in degraded geometry andaccuracy at best, and unavailable or unreliable positions atworst. Once Galileo is implemented by the EuropeanUnion, the use of a combined GPS + Galileo receiver willresult in an increase of twice the number of satellitesavailable above the horizon. The availability andreliability improvements attained, by augmenting GPSwith Galileo and constraints under isotropic maskingconditions and within a constricted waterway / urbancanyon is illustrated through software simulations. Theseresults clearly demonstrate the advantage of augmentingGPS with Galileo for marine navigation, especially undermoderate to extreme masking conditions.
INTRODUCTION
Since the advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS),marine users have migrated from radiobeacon directionfinding, LORAN-C and Transit as their primary electronicnavigational aids to GPS. This trend was acceleratedwhen differential GPS (DGPS) services became available,which improved the positioning accuracy several ordersof magnitude from 100 m (2DRMS with SelectiveAvailability [SA] On) to several meters (2DRMS). Withthe deactivation of SA on May 1, 2000 (Office, 2000),even more mariners will migrate to GPS and DGPS.However, as the mariner expects and relies more andmore on DGPS, ensuring the reliability of the positionsolution becomes paramount. Many previous analysis(Ryan et al., 1998, Ryan and Lachapelle, 1999, Ryan etal., 1999a, and Ryan et al., 1999b.) have shown that whileDGPS positions may be available under moderate toextreme masking conditions, they are often unreliable (theposition may be corrupted by an undetected blunder in theobservations). In order to make the resulting position bothavailable and reliable, DGPS must be augmented with acombination of constraints and other satellite navigationsystems.The previous analysis mentioned above used the RussianGlobal Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) as theprimary additional satellite constellation. Whileaugmenting DGPS with differential GLONASS didimprove the availability and reliability of the navigationsolution, the reduced number of healthy GLONASSsatellites (24 in 1996 to eight in 2000) reduced theeffectiveness of the augmentation.In this paper instead of dealing with the currentlyavailable augmentations for DGPS, the European Union’sfuture satellite based navigation system (Galileo) will beexamined. While Galileo is still in the planning stage andmany technical details must still be ironed out, the systemwill:1)
 
provide world wide coverage2)
 
employ multiple L-band frequencies3)
 
provide an open access service (OAS), as well ascontrolled access services (CAS)4)
 
transmit real time integrity data for the CASThe European Union will decide in December 2000whether to implement Galileo, assuming that the decisionis “yes”, Galileo will be operational by 2008. Thus by2008 the world will have two operational globalnavigation satellite systems (GNSS), the modernized GPSsystem and Galileo. What will be the availability andreliability improvements attained by augmenting themodernized GPS system with Galileo? The answer to thisquestion is the focus of this paper. Since Galileo is still inthe planning stages, the availability and reliability
721
Oceanic Navigation using advanced GPS
A Haider . Scientist State University of New York
A Haider azaidi2@buffalo.edu
 
improvements will be estimated through softwaresimulations. Before the results are presented, the Galileoconstellations used for the analysis are described,followed by a brief discussion of reliability theory. SinceGalileo will be a world wide system, the simulations areconducted for users all over the globe, under benign andextreme masking conditions.
GALILEO CONSTELLATIONS
The Galileo system will consist of a constellation of eithermedium earth orbiting (MEO) satellites or a combinationof MEOs and geostationary (GEO) satellites. Both of these constellations are considered baselineconfigurations for Galileo (Lucas and Ludwig, 1999, andWolfrum et al., 1999). Within each baseline configurationthere are various altitude, orbital plane, and satellitespacing possibilities. The following four potential Galileoconstellations were discussed in Lucas and Ludwig(1999) and Wolfrum et al. (1999):1)
 
24 MEOs in three orbital planes, with an altitudeof 24,000 km, inclination of 55º, augmented withthree GEOs2)
 
Same as (1), but at an altitude of 19,500 km3)
 
Same as (1), but at an altitude of 24,126 km,with nine GEOs for world wide coverage using aWalker 24/3/2 constellation.4)
 
30 MEOs in three planes, with an altitude of 24,000 kmTaking these different constellation configurations intoaccount, the two constellations given in Table 1 werechosen for the simulations.
Table 1 Galileo Satellite Constellations#MEOsAltitudeiWalkerGEOs
12424,126 km55º24/3/2923024,126 km55º30/3/20Figure 1 shows the locations of the MEO satellites withintheir orbital planes for the two Galileo constellations. Formore information on the Walker constellation definitionssee Walker (1978) and Spilker (1994).Galileo #1 contains nine geostationary satellites equallyspaced around the globe at the following longitudes-160
°
E, -120
°
E, -80
°
E, -40
°
E, 0
°
E, 40
°
E, 80
°
E,120
°
E, 160
°
E. Geostationary satellites provide excellentvisibility at low latitudes, however, as the user’s latitudeincreases, the elevation angle steadily decreases. Figure 2shows the elevation angles for a geostationary satellite at0
°
longitude using color contours drawn in 5
°
increments.At mid to high latitudes the geostationary satellite can beeasily blocked by obstructions.
-1 8 0 -9 0 0 9 0 1 8 0-1 8 0-1 5 0-1 2 0-9 0-6 0-3 003 06 09 01 2 01 5 01 8 0
Longitude of the Assending Node
   A  u  g  u  m  e  n   t  o   f   L  a   t   i   t  u   d  e
24 MEO + 9 GEO
123456789101112131415161718192021222324
-1 8 0 -9 0 0 9 0 1 8 0-1 8 0-1 5 0-1 2 0-9 0-6 0-3 003 06 09 01 2 01 5 01 8 0
30 MEO
 
123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930Figure 1 Galileo Constellations
Elevation Angle0102030405060708090Longitude
   L  a   t   i   t  u   d  e
180
o
W 120
o
W 60
o
W 0
o
60
o
E 120
o
E 180
o
W90
o
S60
o
S30
o
S0
o
 30
o
N60
o
N90
o
N
Figure 2 Geostationary Satellite Elevation Angle
Figure 3 plots the number of visible geostationarysatellites using Galileo #1, assuming an isotropic mask angle of 30
°
. The locations for the nine geostationarysatellites are displayed as red squares on the equator. Atleast two satellites are visible within
±
45
°
latitude.However, at higher latitudes the number of visiblesatellites quickly drops to one and then zero. This figureillustrates the main drawback of geostationary satelliteaugmentations, the poor visibility at high latitudes. ThusGalileo #2 which does not contain any geostationarysatellites should outperform Galileo #1 at high latitudesunder moderate to extreme masking conditions.
722
 
Number of Visible GEOs012345Longitude
   L  a   t   i   t  u   d  e
180
o
W 120
o
W 60
o
W 0
o
60
o
E 120
o
E 180
o
W90
o
S60
o
S30
o
S0
o
 30
o
N60
o
N90
o
N
Figure 3 Number of Visible Geostationary Satelliteswith a 30
°°°°
Isotropic Mask AngleRELIABILITY THEORY
Reliability refers to the ability to detect blunders in themeasurements and to estimate the effects of undetectedblunders on the navigation solution. Reliability can besub-divided into internal and external reliability. Internalreliability quantifies the smallest blunder that can bedetected in each observation through statistical testing of the least squares residuals. Once the internal reliabilityhas been determined, external reliability quantifies theimpact that an undetected blunder can have on thenavigation solution.In order to detect a blunder using an epoch by epoch leastsquares approach, a statistical test must be performed onthe residuals. Hence, redundancy must exist in order todetect the blunder. An unknown blunder vector,
, willbias the least squares residuals rˆaccording to:
==
RCCr ˆ
1lrˆ
(1)where
rˆ
Cis the covariance matrix of the residuals
l
Cis the covariance matrix of the observations
1lrˆ
CCR
=
and is the redundancy matrixAssuming that one blunder can occur at a time, theblunder vector
contains only one non-zero element.Using local residual checking, each standardized residualis tested according to:
21iirˆi
nCrˆ
α
(2)The underlying assumption is that the residuals arenormally distributed, and that a blunder, while biasing theresidual, does not change its variance. Two types of errorscan be made whenever a statistical test is performed.1)
 
A Type I error occurs whenever a goodobservation is rejected. The probabilityassociated with a Type I error is denoted
α
.2)
 
A Type II error occurs whenever a badobservation is accepted. The probabilityassociated with a Type II error is denoted
β
.By selecting values for
α
and
β
the bias in thestandardized residual called the non centrality parameter
δ
o
can be calculated, [Leick, 1995]. Once the reliabilityparameters have been specified, the smallest blunder thatcan be detected through statistical testing of residual “i” iscomputed by substituting equation (1) into (2) and letting
021
n
δ=
α
:
iiiiii
rˆloiirˆoi
CCRC
δ=δ=
(3)This is called the Marginally Detectable Blunder (MDB).Each observation has a different MDB since eachresidual’s covariance matrix (
ii
rˆ
C
) is different. Once allof the MDBs have been calculated, the impact of eachMDB on the parameters is assessed separately using:
o1lT1
CANˆ
=δ
(4)whereA is the design matrix
 ACAN
1-lT
=
is the normal matrix
o
is a column vector containing all zero’sexcept for the MDB in the i
th
position.The horizontal position error (HPE) corresponding toeach MDB is calculated using
δ
ˆfrom equation (4). Thelargest HPE from all of the MDBs represents the externalreliability for that epoch.For a more detailed treatment of reliability theory see
Vaní
č
ek and Krakiwsky (
1
986), Leick (
1
995), and Koch
(1999).
SOFTWARE SIMULATION
The reliability and precision improvements obtained byaugmenting DGPS with the two Galileo constellations aswell as with a height and a clock constraint wereevaluated under isotropic masking conditions and in aconstricted waterway / urban canyon.The simulations were conducted over 24 hours in 60second increments, using the GPS almanac from June 6,2000. The following reliability parameters were used:
α
=0.1%,
β
= 10%, and
δ
o
= 4.57, the reliability algorithmassumed that the residual testing was performed epoch byepoch using no apriori knowledge of the trajectory. DGPS(28 satellites available) was augmented with the twoGalileo constellations, a height constraint and a clock constraint. Taking all of these combinations into account,
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