Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
30Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
application of op amp

application of op amp

Ratings: (0)|Views: 3,461 |Likes:
Published by xxkkass

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: xxkkass on May 08, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/28/2013

pdf

text

original

 
APPLICATIONS OFOPERATIONALAMPLIFIERS
ECE-210
 
ANALOG CKT’s & LINEAR IC
SUBMITTED TO- SUBMITTEDBY- NARENDRA GARG ABHISHEK CHAUDHARY10809431E6802A27 
 
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
The term Operational Amplifier 
 
or opamp in short, was coined by JohnR.Ragazzini in 1947. It denoted a specialtype of amplifier that could perform avariety of functions like amplification,addition, subtraction, differentiation andintegration if the external componentswere properly selected. It can performthese mathematical operations due to thecombination of high gain and negativefeedback.
History:
The Operational amplifiers haveundergone a lot of development since itwas first made. When it was first made,vacuum tubes were used. The problem wasthat it was too bulky, expensive and usedlarge amounts of power. The firstminiaturization of op amp was madethrough bipolar junction transistor (BJT).A major break through occurred with thedevelopment of Integrated Circuit(IC) opamp. They are made by fabricatingelements in monolithic form of siliconchip having a size of a pinhead. The firstof such a device was developed by RobertJ. Widlar in 1960s at FairchildSemiconductor Corporation. In 1968Fairchild developed one of the mostfamous and regularly used op amp µA741.Since, it was developed it has undergone alot of changes but still is one the mostfrequently used op amp. Some of othetypes of amplifiers are µA324, µA082,µA339, etc.Fig.1Fig.2Figure 1. shows the first type of op ampµA741. Figure 2. shows the new type of op amp µA741 that we use today.
Ideal Operation Amplifier:
An Ideal Op Amp has a gain that is equalto 1. It is achieved as a
and thefollowing conditions are achieved.
1.
d
= ∞.
2.
o
= 0.
3.
i
P
= i
 N
= 0.
 
It is also known as Voltage follower if theexternal input resistance R 
i
= ∞ and outputresistance R 
o
= 0. It is used to act as a
resistance transformer 
since looking intothe input we see an open circuit and intothe output we see the short circuit, due towhich we get V
0
= V
I
.
Non- Inverting Amplifier:
In the non inverting amplifier the voltagesource is connected to the positiveterminal.V
P
= V
in
The output resistance
2
isconnected in series with input resistance
1
and the input voltage of the negativeterminal is a fraction of out voltage V
out
.V
 N
= (R 
1
/ R 
1
+ R 
2
) V
out
By definition of amplifiers,V
out
=
 
a V
D
= a(V
P
- V
 N
) = a (V
in
-(R 
1
/ R 
1
+ R 
2
) V
out
thus,Gain= A= (V
out
/
 
V
in
) = (1+ R 
2
/
1
). Asa
∞,Since the gain A obtained is positive that mean the output and input arein phase and thus such a type of amplifier is called non-inverting amplifier.
Fig.4 shows the circuit for non-invertingamplifier.
 
Fig.4
Inverting Amplifier:
The inverting amplifier has thevoltage connected to the negative terminalinput through the resistance
in
. Byapplying Kirchhoff’s Voltage law. We get,
 
The negative sign indicates that the outputwill have 180
o
of phase shift. Hence such atype of amplifier is called invertingamplifier. It is shown in fig.5.Fig.5
Uses of operational amplifiers:
Operational Amplifiers are used inradios and music system to enhance thevolume without increase in theconsumption of power. In cars themovement of the wiper blades is controlled by the op-amps. In computers op-amps areused in sound control and to increase the

Activity (30)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Learner_60 liked this
Ch Subrahmanyam liked this
prakashrout liked this
satishreddy71 liked this
Paras Mahajan liked this
Preksha Nair liked this
PajDizon liked this
Patrick Chun liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->