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JB CI 10.1 Collision Theory

JB CI 10.1 Collision Theory

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Published by: OCRChemistrySalters on May 08, 2010
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05/12/2010

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CI 10.1
The collision theory of reactions
Reactions occur when particles of reactantscollidewith a certainminimum kinetic energy. (Activation enthalpy)Low concentration Higher concentrationAny factor whichincreasesthenumber of collisionswillincrease the rate of reaction.As particles approach and collide, K.E. is converted to P.E. andthe P.E. of reactants rises.
 
In the aboveexothermicreaction,existing bondsstart tostretch and break andnew bonds form. Only Reactants with sufficient K.E. will overcome the
activation enthalpy
and form products.At higher temperatures, more of the colliding particles haveenough energy to react.
Enthalpy profiles
 
Activation enthalpy
ReactantsProductsEnthal pyProgress of reactionX
 
The curved line is the energy pathway for a pair of collidingmolecules(called the energy or enthalpy profilefor the reaction). X corresponds to the arrangement of atoms where old bonds arestretched and new bonds are starting to form.Eg. For chlorine atoms and ozone, the oxygen – oxygen bonds inozone break and a new bond between oxygen and chlorine isforming.Cl + O
3
 
Cl------O------O O
ClO + O
2
At X(this is a very unstable arrangement and only lasts for a very shorttime).Theenthalpy profileis shown as asingle curve(this is only true for single-step reactions). Other reactions haveseveral steps, sothe enthalpy profile would show several steps, too.
Activation enthalpy
ReactantsProductsEnthal pyProgress of reaction
X

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