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R. A. Humphreys & John Lynch - The Emancipation of Latin America

R. A. Humphreys & John Lynch - The Emancipation of Latin America

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Revista de Historia de América, No. 59 (Jan. - Jun., 1965), pp. 181-197
Revista de Historia de América, No. 59 (Jan. - Jun., 1965), pp. 181-197

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Published by: elevatoraero on May 09, 2010
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ESTUDIOSBIBLIOGR?FICOSTHEEMANCIPATIONOFLATINAMERICA
Itcouldproperlybesaidtenyearsagothat,withthepossibleexceptionoftheestablishmentofSpanishpowerintheNewWorldin thefirstquarterofthesixteenthcentury,nosubjecthadsocloselyandcontinuously engagedtheattentionofSpanishAmericanhistoriansasthesubversionofthatpowerinthefirstquarterofthenineteenthcentury.1Thisjudgmentisstillvalidtoday.EventhemostcasualinspectionofsuchgeneralbibliographicalaidsastheHandbookofLatin AmericanStudies2andtheIndiceHist?ficoEspa?ol3servestoconfirmit;and,naturally enough,adecadewhichhasseenthe hundred andfiftiethanniversaryin 1960oftherevolutionsof1810 inVenezuela,Colombia,ArgentinaandChile,aswellasof theGritode DoloresinMexico,hasseenalsoafloodofpublicationstoswellthealreadyformidableproportionsoftheliteraturerelatingtoLatinAmericain theageofemancipation.Theyincludespecializedbibliograhiesandindices?theBibliograf?adeArtigasinUruguayisanoutstanding
example;4cataloguesofmanuscriptsandofcontemporarypublications5?theiR.A.Humphreys,"TheHistoriographyoftheSpanishAmericanRevolutions,"XCongressoInternazionale diScienceStoriche,Relazioni(6Vols.,Firenze,1955)i,207-23.ReprintedintheHispanicAmericanHistoricalReview,xxxvi(1956),81-93.2HarvardUniversityPress,1936-51;Universityof FloridaPress,1951.3CentrodeEstudiosHist?ricosInternacionales,UniversidaddeBarcelona,1953.4Mar?aJuliaArdao andAuroraCapillasdeCastellanos,Bibliograf?ade Artigas (2vols.,Montevideo,1953-58).SeealsoG.Furlong Cardiffand A. R.Geoghegan,Bibliograf?adelaRevoluci?ndeMayo,1810-1828(BuenosAires,I960),ManuelSegundoS?nchez,Obras(2vols.,Caracas,1964),andSergioVillalobosR.,?ndicedelaColecci?ndehistoriadoresydedocumentosrelativosalaindependenciade Chile(Santiago,1956).5As,forexample,RicardoDonoso,FuentesdocumentalesparalahistoriadelaindependenciadeAm?rica(M?xico,I960),the firstoftheinventories ofEuropeanarchivestobepublished bytheComisi?ndeHistoria oftheInstituto PanamericanodeGeograf?aeHistoria;CarlosE.Casta?edaandJ.A.Dabbs,IndependentMexicoinDocuments: Independence, EmpireandRepublic.AcalendaroftheJuanE.Hern?ndezyD?valosmanuscriptcollection.TheUniversity ofTexasLibrary(Mexico,1954);AngelGrisanti,Elarchivo delLibertador.Indice(3vols.,Caracas,1956);PedroGrases,Cat?logodelaexposici?nbibliogr?ficabolivarianaorganizadaenocasi?ndelprimerCongresoInternacionalde Sociedades Bolivarianas(Caracas,1962);G.Valenzuela,Bibliograf?aguatemalteca,ycat?logogeneraldelibros,folletos,peri?dicos,revistas,etc.,182?-1830(Guatemala,1961).
181
 
R.A.Humphreysand JohnLynchR.H.A.Num.O
former allthemoreurgentlyneeded,becausethearchivesofSpainandPortugalandofthecountriesofLatinAmericaarestillinadequatelycataloguedformanyperiods,includingtheindependenceperiod;and,besidesahostofmonographs,,
largeandsmall,animpressiveseriesofdocumentarypublications, rangingfromlocalhomenajesontheonehandtosuch monumentalenterprisesontheother
astheBibliotecadeMayoinArgentina6andtheBibliotecade laAcademiaNacionaldelaHistoriainVenezuela.7Thismorerecentdocumentation,it istrue,followsfamiliar linesandis
notlikelytoresultinanystartinglynewinterpretations.Itis, however,extensive,
valuable andinteresting.InMexico,forexample,the documentspublishedbytheArchivo GeneraldelaNaci?ninitsBolet?ncontinuetothrowlightonthepoliticaladministrativeandecclesiasticalhistoryof Mexicanindependence,and MexicanaswellasVenezuelanhistoryhas beenenrichedbythepublicationofsourcematerials drawnfromCuban archives.8TheAcademiaColombiana deHistoriahasreprintedthreeearlyNew Granadanperiodicalsand haspublishedalsoacollectionofdocumentsillustratingtheeventsofJuly1810.9InBrazilasimilarbutmoresubstantial collectionhasbeenputtogethertoillustratetherevolutionof1817,10andwhile,inChile,thirteenvolumesof theColecci?ndeAntiguosPeri?dicosChilenoswerepublishedbetween1951 and1964,theAfchivo dedonBernardo(yWgginsreacheditstwentieth volumein1964and theColecci?ndeHistoriadoresyDocumentos relativosalaIndependenciadeChileitsfortiethvolumein1959.
Themostimpressivebodyofnewdocumentarypublications,however,comes*
fromVenezuelaandArgentina.TheBolivariantraditioninVenezuelastillholds*
itsown,aswitness thevolumeofpetitionsaddressedtoBolivar,togetherwith
hisdecisionsuponthem,publishedbytheFundaci?nJohnBoulton.11But Vene
zuelahasalso madeavailableasuperbcollectionofbasicsourcematerials for
thestudyoftheindependenceperiodanditsbackground,by reprintingona
vastscaleofficialdocuments,newspapers,memoirsandothersources,aswell4?BibliotecadeMayo.Colecci?n deobrasydocumentosparalahistoriaargentina(8vols.,BuenosAires,I960).?35vols.(Caracas, 1959-60);vol.36(1961).8J.L.Franco,ed.,Documentosparalahistoria deM?xicoexistentesenelArchiva^Nacional deCuba(Havana,1961),andDocumentosparala historiadeVenezuelaexistentesenel Archivo Nacionalde Cuba(Havana, I960).9Elperiodismoenla NuevaGranada,1810-1811,ed.LuisMart?nezDelgadoancfSergioEliasOrtiz(Bogot?, I960);Documentossobreel20dejuliode1810,ed.EnriqueOrtegaRicaurte(Bogot?,I960);ElBancodelaRep?blica,Proceso hist?ricodel20dejuliode1810:documentos(Bogot?,I960).10BibliotecaNacional,Documentoshist?ricos.Revolu??ode1817(7vols.,RiodeJaneiro,1953-5).See alsoAngeloPereira,D.JoaoVI,pr?ncipeere?.Vol.Hi.AindependenciadoBrasil(Lisbon, 1956).ilAcotacionesbolivarianas.DecretosmarginalesdelLibertador,1813-1830(Caracas,I960);VicenteLecuna,CatalogadeerroresycalumniasenlahistoriadeBol?var(3>vols.,Caracas,1956-8);Cartas delLibertador,vol.xii,ed.ManuelP?rezVila(Caracas,.1959);Sociedad BolivarianadeVenezuela,Escritos delLibertador,vol.i(Caracas,1964).
182
 
Enero-Juniode1965T?heEmancipationof LatinAmericaasanumberofscarcesecondaryworks.12Argentinahasbeensimilarlyprolificinmakingoldsourcesmoreconvenientlyaccessible andinprovidingnewtexts;andthoughtheArgentinecontributiontends,onthewhole,toneglectthedeepersourcesof theindependencemovementandtofocusattentionontheeventsof1810andsucceedingyears,itprovidesanimmensecorpusofmaterialonthe
political, municipal,diplomatic,navalandmilitaryhistoryof theViceroyaltyof the RiodelaPlataintherevolutionaryera.13Meanwhile,thevoicesof
protestfromthoseareasoftheviceroyaltywhichrejectedBuenosAires andeventuallyaccomplishedtheirownindependencehavenotgoneunrecorded:from
Uruguaythereisafine edition ofdocumentsrelatingtothejuntaof1808atMontevideo,and from Boliviaavaluable additionto ourknowledgeoftherebellion of1809 inAltoPeru,particularlywelcome bothbecause of theremoteness
oftheoriginal manuscriptsandbecauseof thepreviousneglectofthesubject.14
Finally,thehistoryof theindependencemovement inBrazil,theRio de laPlata,Chileand PeruhasbeenpartiallyillustratedbythepublicationinBritainofthe
correspondenceof theBritishnaval commandersinSouthAmericanwatersbetween1807and1823.15Thislastcollectionof documentsisanexampleofanapparentlyspecializedsource?inthiscaseadmiraltydocuments?yieldingfruitfulgeneralresults.
Butthis kind ofdocumentationhashad fewimitators. Inonefield,that ofdiplomatichistory,itwas tobeexpectedthat therewouldbeadeclineindocu
mentarypublications,oncethegreatseriesofBritishandUnited States documentshadappeared.16Buttherelative lack ofdocumentationofeconomic,social,local,
and also offamily historycanonlybedeplored.17Thesearestilltheneglected
i2Biblioteca dela AcademiaNacionaldelaHistoria,note7above.Seealso PedroGrasesandManuelP?rezVila,eds.,Pensamientopol?ticovenezolano delsigloxix(15vols.,.Caracas,1960-3),andLasfuerzasarmadasdeVenezuela(textosparasuestudio),publishedbythePresidenciadelaRep?blica(Caracas, 1963.)13BibliotecadeMayo.Colecci?ndeobrasydocumentospatala historiaargentina(8vols.,BuenosAires,I960);Universidadde BuenosAires,InstitutodeHistoria Argentina"DoctorEmilioRavignani,"MayoDocumental(8vols.,BuenosAires,1962-64);Academia NacionaldelaHistoria,Memoriasdel AlmiranteBrown(BuenosAires, 1957);InstitutoNacionalSanmartinianoand MuseoHist?ricoNacional,DocumentosparalahistoriadelLibertador GeneralSanMart?n(8vols.,BuenosAires,1953-60);CarlosA.LuqueColombres,ed.,Cabildo deC?rdoba:Actascapitulares(C?rdoba,I960).See alsothedocumentspublishedinthereviewHistoria,v(i960).14MuseoHist?ricoNacional,DocumentosrelativosalaJuntaMontevideanadeGo*biernode1808(3vols.,Montevideo,1958-60);M.M.Pinto,CarlosPonceSangin?s,and Ra?lAlfonsoGarc?a,Documentosparalahistoria delaRevoluci?nde1809(4vols.,LaPaz,1953-54).15Gerald S.Graham andR.A.Humphreys,TheNavyandSouthAmerica,18071823:CorrespondenceoftheCommanders-in-ChiefontheSouthAmerican Station(London,NavyRecordsSociety,1962).16Seehowever,Ernestode laTorreVillar,Correspondenciadiplom?ticafrancomexicana,1808-1839,vol.i(M?xico,1957);Crist?balL.Mendoza,Lasprimerasmisionesdiplom?ticasdeVenezuela(2vols., Madrid,1962);VicenteLecuna,Relacionesdiplom?ticasde Bol?varconChileyBuenos Aires(2vols., Caracas,1954).17Thatwhichhasappeared,however,shows what canbedone.See the editionofJos?RafaelRevenga,Lahaciendap?blicadeVenezuelaen1828-1829(Caracas,1953);
183

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