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Bài viết CCNA OSPF

Bài viết CCNA OSPF

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Published by Thuc Anh

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Published by: Thuc Anh on May 09, 2010
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B\u00e0i vi\u1ebft CCNA-OSPF
T\u00e1c gi\u1ea3: \u0110\u0103\u0323 ng Quang Minh
T\u00e0i li\u1ec7u tham kh\u1ea3o cho h\u1ecdc vi\u00ean CCNA c\u1ee7a VnPro

OSPF d\u00f9ng gi\u1ea3i thu\u1eadt SPF \u0111\u1ec3 t\u00ednh t\u00f3an \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111i. Gi\u1ea3i thu\u1eadt n\u00e0y c\u00f2n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 gi\u1ea3i thu\u1eadt Dijkstra.
C\u00e1c routing protocol nh\u00f3m link state kh\u00f4ng broadcast t\u00f2an b\u1ed9 th\u00f4ng tin v\u1ec1 b\u1ea3ng \u0111\u1ecbnh tuy\u1ebfn gi\u1ed1ng
nh\u01b0 RIP/IGRP v\u00e0 thay v\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3, OSPF s\u1ebd d\u00f9ng m\u1ed9t qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh \u0111\u1ec3 kh\u00e1m ph\u00e1 c\u00e1c l\u00e1ng gi\u1ec1ng
(neighbor). C\u00e1c l\u00e1ng gi\u1ec1ng c\u0169ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a t\u0129nh.

Router l\u00e1ng gi\u1ec1ng l\u00e0 c\u00e1c router kh\u00e1c, c\u0169ng ch\u1ea1y OSPF, c\u00f3 chung subnet v\u1edbi router hi\u1ec7n h\u00e0nh. Khi c\u00e1c router \u0111\u00e3 thi\u1ebft l\u1eadp quan h\u1ec7 l\u00e1ng gi\u1ec1ng v\u1edbi nhau, c\u00e1c router b\u1eaft \u0111\u1ea7u trao \u0111\u1ed5i c\u00e1c th\u00f4ng tin v\u1ec1 \u0111\u1ed3 h\u00ecnh (topology) c\u1ee7a m\u1ea1ng. Gi\u1ea3i thu\u1eadt SPF s\u1ebd ch\u1ea1y tr\u00ean c\u00e1c database n\u00e0y \u0111\u1ec3 t\u00ednh ra c\u00e1c \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111i t\u1ed1t

Khi m\u1ed9t interface \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ec9 \u0111\u1ecbnh ch\u1ea1y OSPF, c\u00e1c b\u01b0\u1edbc sau di\u1ec5n ra:
1. X\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh neighbors
a. B\u1eaft \u0111\u1ea7u \u1edf Down state, router kh\u00f4ng trao \u0111\u1ed5i g\u00ec v\u1edbi ai.
b. Sang Init state, router g\u1eedi hello packet \u0111\u1ec3 x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh neighbor. OSPF g\u1eedi packet Hello l\u1ea7n \u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean

v\u00e0 ch\u1edd nh\u1eadn m\u1ed9t g\u00f3i Hello packet t\u1eeb m\u1ed9t OSPF router kh\u00e1c, chu\u1ea9n b\u1ecb cho vi\u1ec7c thi\u1ebft l\u1eadp quan h\u1ec7 : Two way hay Adjacency. Init state ch\u1ec9 gi\u00fap router t\u00ecm c\u00e1c neighbor c\u1ee7a n\u00f3 th\u00f4i. \u1ede giai \u0111\u1ecdan n\u00e0y, router ch\u01b0a thi\u1ebft l\u1eadp adjacency

c. Two-way state, router nh\u1eadn hello h\u00ecnh th\u00e0nh neighbors. Khi n\u00e0y c\u00e1c Router nh\u1eadn ra neighbor, nh\u01b0ng kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 share routing information cho nhau \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c. ; kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 b\u1ea7u ch\u1ecdn DR/BDR trong state n\u00e0y. =>DR l\u00e0 router ch\u00ednh \u0111\u1ec3 ph\u00e2n ph\u1ed1i cho c\u00e1c router c\u00f2n l\u1ea1i.

2. H\u00ecnh th\u00e0nh Adjacency

a. V\u00e0o Extart state: G\u1eedi v\u00e0 nh\u1eadn DBD (DataBase Description), t\u1eeb \u0111\u00f3 ch\u1ecdn ra master/slave. Master
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c quy\u1ec1n g\u1eedi c\u00e1c DBD tr\u01b0\u1edbc.
b. Sang Exchange state: Master g\u1eedi DBD cho c\u00e1c slave, slave nhan DBD, so s\u00e1nh v\u1edbi c\u00e1c th\u00f4ng tin
c\u1ee7a n\u00f3, \u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi g\u1eedi LSAck l\u1ea1i cho master
c. Loading state: N\u1ebfu m\u1ed9t trong hai b\u00ean c\u00f3 th\u00f4ng tin \u0111\u00fang h\u01a1n, b\u00ean kia s\u1ebd g\u1eedi y\u00eau c\u1ea7u LSRequest,
b\u00ean n\u00e0y tr\u1ea3 l\u1ea1i LSUpdate, b\u00ean kia nh\u1eadn v\u00e0 tr\u1ea3 l\u1ea1i LSAck. Tr\u1ea1ng th\u00e1i b, c l\u1eb7p cho \u0111\u00e9n khi ch\u00fang c\u00f3
c\u00f9ng th\u00f4ng tin
d. Full state: Khi n\u00e0y, c\u00e1c router \u0111\u00e3 c\u00f3 database nh\u01b0 nhau, ch\u00fang tr\u1edf th\u00e0nh adjacency c\u1ee7a nhau.

Ch\u1ec9 nh\u1eefng Router l\u00e0 adjacency c\u1ee7a nhau m\u1edbi share routing information cho nhau
- Trong serial link (point to point), c\u00e1c Router OSPF c\u0169ng t\u1ef1 b\u1ea7u ch\u1ecdn DR/BDR, kh\u00f4ng nh\u1ea5t thi\u1ebft
l\u00e0 trong multiaccess
DR, BDR \u0111\u1ec3 l\u00e0m g\u00ec?

Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m DR, BDR ch\u1ec9 d\u00f9ng khi interface c\u1ee7a router n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o broadcast-multiaccess segment. \u0110\u1ec3
trao \u0111\u1ed5i \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u00f4ng tin v\u00f3i nhau, c\u00e1c router OSPF ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0 c\u00e1c adjacent c\u1ee7a nhau. Gi\u1ea3 s\u1eed trong
segment c\u00f3 N router ch\u1ea1y OSPF v\u00e0 c\u00f9ng thu\u1ed9c m\u1ed9t area. N\u1ebfu kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 DR/BDR, c\u00e1c router ph\u1ea3i
thi\u1ebft l\u1eadp quan h\u1ec7 adjacency v\u1edbi nhau ==> c\u00f3N*(N-1)/2 m\u1ed1i quan h\u1ec7. V\u00e0 khiN*(N-1)/2 mqh\u1ec7 n\u00e0y
c\u00f9ng g\u1eedi th\u00f4ng tin update th\u00ec \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng \u0111\u1ebfn performance c\u1ee7a m\u1ea1ng l\u00e0 \u0111i\u1ec1u kh\u00f4ng tr\u00e1nh kh\u1ecfi. V\u00ec
th\u1ebf, DR s\u1ebd \u0111\u1ee9ng ra l\u00e0m trung gian, nh\u1eadn v\u00e0 ph\u00e2n ph\u1ed1i c\u00e1c LSA t\u1eeb c\u00e1c router th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean (c\u00f9ng
segment), sau \u0111\u00f3 ph\u00e2n ph\u1ed1i \u0111\u1ebfn c\u00e1c router c\u00f2n l\u1ea1i. BDR ch\u1ec9 l\u00e0 backup cho DR. Thay v\u00ec c\u00f3N*(N-

1)/2 quan h\u1ec7, b\u1ea1n ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 N-1 quan h\u1ec7 v\u00ec c\u00e1c router ch\u1ec9 t\u1ea1o adjacency v\u1edbi DR th\u00f4i.
V\u1eady nh\u01b0ng \u1edf m\u1ee9c neighbor, c\u00e1c router v\u1eabn g\u1eedi c\u00e1c hello packet cho nhau (10s m\u1ed9t l\u1ea7n)
Trong ospf c\u00f3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng ba ID:

* Router ID : \u0110\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1eedi \u0111i t\u1eeb c\u00e1c router trong c\u00e1c g\u00f3i tin hello.N\u00f3 c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ed9 d\u00e0i 32bit.No c\u00f3 gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb
b\u1eb1ng \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 IP l\u1edbn nh\u1ea5t \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1ee7 d\u1ee5ng tr\u00ean router.N\u1ebfu tr\u00ean router c\u00f3 giao di\u1ec7n loopback
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u1ea5u h\u00ecnh th\u00ec router ID b\u1eb1ng \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 IP c\u1ee7a giao di\u1ec7n loopback \u0111\u00f3.Trong tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u
giao di\u1ec7n loopback th\u00ec n\u00f3 l\u1ea5y \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 l\u1edbn nh\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a giao di\u1ec7n loopback l\u00e0m router ID.Router ID
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng \u0111\u1ec3 ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t c\u00e1c router n\u1eb1m trong c\u00f9ng m\u1ed9t autonmous system.

* Process ID : l\u00e0 tham s\u1ed1 c\u1ea5u h\u00ecnh khi ta \u0111\u00e1nh l\u1ec7nh router ospf process-id.
*Area ID: l\u00e0 tham s\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ec3 group m\u1ed9t nh\u00f3m c\u00e1c router v\u00e0o c\u00f9ng m\u1ed9t area.C\u00e1c router n\u00e0y c\u00f9ng chia s\u1ebb
hi\u1ec3u bi\u1ebft v\u1ec1 c\u00e1c \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ecdc \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c trong mi\u1ec1n OSPF.

Vi\u1ec7c chia th\u00e0nh nhi\u1ec1u area l\u00e0 \u0111\u1ec3 ti\u1ec7n vi\u1ec7c qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd \u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi n\u00f3 gi\u00fap ta gi\u1edbi h\u1ea1n k\u00edch th\u01b0\u1edbc c\u1ee7a
topology database, gi\u1ea3 s\u1eed n\u1ebfu ta c\u00f3 duy nh\u1ea5t m\u1ed9t v\u00f9ng v\u1edbi k\u00edch th\u01b0\u1edbc l\u1edbn th\u00ec l\u00fac \u0111\u00f3 ta c\u0169ng s\u1ebd c\u00f3
m\u1ed9t topology database r\u1ea5t l\u1edbn t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u1ee9ng khi\u1ebfn cho vi\u1ec7c x\u1eed l\u00fd c\u1ee7a router ch\u1eadm \u0111i.......

Trong ospf \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 v\u00f9ng c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n sau:
1. Stub Area: \u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 v\u00f9ng s\u1ebd kh\u00f4ng nh\u1eadn nh\u1eefng routing update t\u1eeb b\u00ean ngo\u00e0i (Type 5) nh\u01b0ng
v\u1eabn nh\u1eadn update t\u1eeb nh\u1eefng Area l\u00e1ng gi\u1ec1ng (Type 3)

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