will be. Note that, for repeated roots, there is one big dot, which is supposed to stand for tworoots stacked on top of one another.
For example, for the stable spiral, we drawIn orange, we have plotted actual solutions
) to such a system, and in blue we’ve drawnroots with a negative real part and nonzero complex part, because such a system will have thosekind of roots.Each pair of plots is positioned in the (
∆) plane at the origin of the orange axes—so, forexample, the orange origin of the degenerate sink plot lies precisely on the parabola ∆ =
4,and the orange origin of the center plot is exactly on the positive ∆ axis.For saddle points, we only draw one orange plot, because they look roughly the same regardlessof the trace. We do, however, draw three diﬀerent blue plots, corresponding to negative, zero, andpositive trace.Notice that there are three diﬀerent kinds of two-dimensional plots in the ﬁgure! Given a matrix
, we we can plot solutions to the DE system in an (
) plane (orange plots), the eigenvalues canbe placed in the complex plane (blue plots), and we classify stability behavior in the (
∆) plane.Quite a large number of concepts all come together in the main ﬁgure.
Stability on the axes and the parabola
and ∆ axes, along with the parabola ∆ =
4, are colored black in the main ﬁgure, but wecan ﬁgure out the stability behavior for those places too. Here’s a picture of those axes and theparabola, made very fat since that’s what we are interested in:4 67251 3In region 1—that is, the part of the parabola ∆ =
0—our system has a singlenegative eigenvalue. We may or may not have two linearly independent eigenvectors, but in anycase, our solutions will be linear combinations of terms of the form exp(
goes to inﬁnity, such terms will
, so everything in region 1 is stable .By a similar argument, everything in region 3 is unstable .In region 2, the systems have purely imaginary eigenvalues and all the solutions are periodic,and hence region 2 is stable . On the other side of the ∆ axis in region 7, we always have onepositive and one negative eigenvalue, so all such systems are in region 7 are unstable at the origin.
The radius of those larger dots is
2 times that of the smaller dots, so the area of the big dots is exactly thesame as the sum of the areas of two small dots!