A dairy is a facility for the extraction and processing of animal milkmostly from cows or goats,but also from buffalo, sheep, goat or camelsfor human consumption. Typically it is a farm(
) or section of a farm that is concerned with the production of milk, butter andcheese.Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or an animal husbandry, enterprise, for long-termproduction of milk, usually from dairy cows but also from goats and sheep, which may be eitherprocessed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale.Most dairy farms sell the male calves born by their cows, usually for veal production, orbreeding depending on quality of the bull calf, rather than raising non-milk-producing stock.The word
refers to milk-based products, derivatives and processes, and the animals andworkers involved in their production: for example dairy cattle, dairy goat. A dairy farm producesmilk and a dairy factory processes it into a variety of dairy products. These establishmentsconstitute the dairy industry, a component of the food industry.India is the largest producer of milk producing more than 100 million tons of milk per annum.Yet, her per capita milk consumption is around 250 g per day.India has a population of more than 1 billion with diverse food habits, cultures, traditions andreligions. Regional variations within the country can be mind boggling. On one hand, thecountry has plains with long tradition of milk production and consumption. On the other hand,there are forest and hilly regions with no tradition of dairying. Most of coastal belts also do nothave much of dairy tradition.Cow is holy for Hindus who make up more than 80 per cent of the population of India. Buffaloenjoys no such holy status. Cow slaughter is banned in many states of India. There are norestrictions on buffalo culling.Technological advances have only come about very recently in the history of milk consumption,and our generations will be the ones credited for having turned milk processing from an art to ascience. The availability and distribution of milk and milk products today in the modern world isa blend of the centuries old knowledge of traditional milk products with the application of modern science and technology.The role of milk in the traditional diet has varied greatly in different regions of the world.