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Total Physical Response&Silent Way

Total Physical Response&Silent Way

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Published by muhittin yakut

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Published by: muhittin yakut on May 09, 2010
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11/27/2012

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TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
INTRODUCTION
TPR is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action.It attempts to teach language through physical activity. It was developed by Dr. James Asher.The method relies on the assumption that when learning a second or partner language, thatlanguage is internalized through a process of code breaking similar to first languagedevelopment and that the process allows for a long period of listening and developing,comprehension prior to production. In a developmental sense, Asher sees successful adultsecond language learning as a parallel process to child first language acquisition. Besides,Asher shares with the school of humanistic psychology a concern for the role of affective(emotional) factors in language learning.
APPROACH
Theory of LanguageTPR reflects a grammar-based view of language. Asher states that “most of thegrammatical structure of the target language and hundreds of vocabulary items can be learntfrom the skillful use of the imperative by the instructor”. (1977:4) He views the verb, and particularly the verb in the imperative, as the central linguistic motif around which languageuse and learning are organized.Theory of LearningAsher sees a stimulus-response view as providing the learning theory underlyinglanguage teaching pedagogy. In psychology, it is also possible to link the TPR to the tracetheory. The more intensive of a memory connection is traced, the stronger the memoryassociation will be. Retracing can also be done verbally and in association with motor activity.Asher has elaborated an account of what he feels facilities or inhibits foreign languagelearning. For the dimension of his theory, Asher suggests three hypotheses.The bio-program:Asher sees first and second language learning as parallel processes. Asher sees three processes as central:
 
1-Children develop listening competence before they develop the ability to speak.2-Children’s ability in listening comprehension is acquired.3-After a foundation in listening comprehension is established, speech evolvesnaturally effortlessly out of it.Brain LateralizationAdult should use right-brain motor activities, while the left hemisphere watches andlearns. Right hemisphere activities must occur before the left hemisphere can processlanguage for production.Reduction of StressAccording to Asher, although the first language accusation takes place in a stress-freeenvironment, the adult language learning environment often causes considerable stress and n-anxiety. Therefore, the key to stress free learning is to tap into the natural bio-program for language development and thus to recapture the relaxed and pleasurable experiences thataccompany first language learning.
DESIGN
The design of Total Physical Response is composed of objective, syllabus, learningactivities, roles of teacher and students, and the instructional materials.
OBJECTIVES 
The general objective of Total Physical Response is to teach oral proficiency at a beginning level. The ultimate aim is to teach basic speaking skills and comprehension.Whatever are goals are set, they must be attainable with the use of action-based drills in theimperative form.
SYLLABUS 
Grammatical and lexical criteria are primary in selecting teaching items with the use of sentence-based syllabus. Total Physical Response requires initial attention to meaning rather than to form of items. Therefore, grammar is taught inductively.
 LEARNING ACTIVITIES 
The major classroom activity in TPR is imperative drills. They are composed of  physical actions and activity on the part of the learners. Role plays are about everydaysituations such as at the school, home or theatre. Other activity is slide presentation to use to
 
make students learn more easily. Using games and objects are also used to introduce newvocabularies. Another activity is story telling in order to attract students’ attention.
 LEARNERS’ ROLES 
Learners have the primary roles of listener and performer. They listen attentively andrespond physically to commands given by the teacher. Both individual and collective respondis used by the students. Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress. They should beencouraged to speak when they feel ready to speak.
TEACHERS ROLES 
Teachers are director and decider. They play an active role and direct role in TPR. Theteacher is a person who decides what to teach and selects supporting materials for classroomuse. Teachers should prepare detailed lesson plans to use the lesson effectively. The teacher controls the language input the learners receive and provides the raw materials that thelearners will construct in their own minds. Teacher should follow the example of parentsgiving feedback to their children. At first, parents correct very little, but as the child growsolder, parents are less tolerant for mistake. At the beginning, teacher should not interrupt inorder to correct errors, or else this can inhibit learners. As time goes on, teacher interventionis expected.
MATERIALS 
There is generally no basic text in a TPR course. At the beginning, the teacher’s voice,mimes and gestures may be sufficient basis for classroom activities. Later, the teacher can usecommon classroom objects such as books, pens… As the lesson develops, the teacher makesor collects supporting materials such as pictures, slides and word charts. Asher has developedTPR students’ kits that focus on specific situations such as the home, supermarket… Studentsmay use the kits to construct scenes.
 PROCEDURE  Review:
this was a fast-moving warm up in which individual students were movedwith commands.
 New commands:
some words were introducedthe book hold the cupthe soap

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