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Published by: muhittin yakut on May 09, 2010
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09/24/2010

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1.PRE-READINGAre you superstitious? Read the sentences. Then check ‘’yes’’ or ‘’no’’YesNo
1. Black cats are unlucky
2.
It is unlucky to break a mirror 
3.
If I point at the moon, something bad will happen to me.
4.
It is bad luck when a shoelace breaks.
5.
If my palm itches, I will receive Money.
6.
When I want good luck, I sometimes cross my fingersor knock on wood.
7.
I have a lucky number.
8.
I have something that I consider lucky-a lucky pen or a lucky hat,
If you checked ‘’yes’’after any of these statements, you are probably a littlesuperstitious.Who is superstitious in your class?Who is not superstitious in your class?BLACK CATS AND BROKEN MIRRORS
Do you think tha it is bad luck to walk under a ladder or break a mirror? Do you think that black cats and the number 13 are unlucky? The three man in the picture don’t. EveryFriday 13th they walk under ladders, break mirrors, and open umbrellas indoors. They want to prove that they were not at all superstitious. They may be the only peopşe in the world who arenot. There are over one million superstitions, and most people believe at least one or two of them.Many people are superstitious about the numbers. They think that there are lucky andunlucky numbers. The number 13 is often considered unlucky n. In some parts of the world, buildings have no 13 floor and streets have no houses with the number 13. In Japan, 4 isconsidered unlucky because in Japanese the word ‘’four’’ is pronounced the same as the word‘’death’’. Japanese never give gifts of four knives, four napkins, or four of anything. What arethe lucky numbers? Seven is a lucky number in many places, and 8 is considered lucky in Japanand China. In China, bussinesses often open on August 8 (8-8), and many couples register toget married at eight past eight on August 8.Superstitions about the numbers are so widespread that some people –callednumerologists-make a living giving advice about numbers. In 1937, when the Toyoda family of Japan wanted to form a car company, they asked a numerologist if ‘’Toyoda’’would be a goodname for the company. The numerologist said it would not be. He explained that ‘’Toyoda’’took ten strokes of pen to write, and 10 was not a lucky number. ‘’Toyota’’ however, toook eight strokes of pen to write, and eight was a very lucky number. The numerologist recomended‘’Toyota’’ as a beter name for the company. The family took his advice. As a ressult, millionsof people drive ‘’Toyotas’’ and not ‘’Toyodas’’In addition to superstitions about the numbers, there are many other kinds of superstitions. There are superstitions about eating,sleeping, sneezing, and itching. There are
 
superstitions about the animals and holidays and horseshoes. There are even superstitions aboutthe superstitions. Those superstitions tell people how to reverse bad luck.For example, in many parts of the world spiling salt salt is bad luck. Throwing salt,however, is good luck. So, people who throw salt throw a little of spilled salt over their leftshoulder. Throwing the spilled salt reverses bad luck. When the Japanese bump heads, theyimmediately bump heads again. According to a Japanese superstition, the first bump meanstheir parents will die, but the second bump ‘erases’ the first bump. To reverse bad luck ingeneral, people turn around three times, turn their pockets inside out, or put their their hats on backwards. In the United States, baseball players sometimes wear their caps backwards whentheir team is losing. It looks silly, but the baseball players do not mind if it helps them win thegame.Because there are many superstitions,it is not surprising that some of them arecontradictory. In Germany, it is good luck when the left eye twitches and the bad luck when theright eye twitches. In Malaysia, it is exactly the opposite: a twitching right eye means goodluck, and a twitching lefte ye means bad luck. Accidentally putting clothes inside out bringsgood luck in Pakistan but bad luck in Costa Rica. In Chile, unmarried people will not take thelast piece of the food on the plate because it means they will never marry. In Thailand,unmarried people take the last piece because it means they will marry someone good-looking.Some superstitions have been with us for so long that they have become customs. Inmany parts of the world, it is polite to say ‘’Health’’ or ‘’God bless you’’ when someonesneezes. People used to think that the soul could escape from the body during the sneeze. Theysaid ‘’God bless you’’ to protect people from losing their souls. Today we no longer believethat people who sneeze are in danger of losing their souls, but we say ‘’God bless you’anyway. We say it not because we are superstitious, but because we are polite.Even people who say they are not superetitious would probably not do what the man inthe picture do-intentionall walk under ladders and break the mirrors. Almost everyone is at leasta little superstitious. One woman says that when she got married, her aunt gave her white bathtowels. ‘’Never buy purple towels’’he aut said. ‘’ If you use purple towels, your marriage willend.’’ Does the woman believe the superstition? ‘’No, of course not,’’ she says. ‘’It is silly.’’Does she use purple towels? ‘’Well, no,’’ she answers. ‘’Why take chances?’’
2. VOCABULARYA. LOOKING AT THE STORYWhich word has the same meaning as the words in the reading selection?Circle the letter of correct answer.1.
Do you think that it is bad luck to walk under a
ladder 
?
a.
In the photo, the man on the right is standing under it.
b.
In the photo, the man in the center is standing under it.
2.
The men walk under ladders and break mirrors
to prove
that they are not superstitious.
a.
to be believe it is crazy
b.
to show it is crazy.
3.
Superstitions about numbers are
widespread.
a.
found in many places.
b.
 believed only by childen
4.
Some people
make a living 
giving advice about numbers.
a.
make money
b.
make mistakes
5.
The family
took his advice.
 
a.
did what he suggested
b.
asked for more information
6.
There are superstitions that reverse bad luck.
a.
change bad luck to good luck 
b.
give bad luck to someone else
7.
If you
 spill salt 
, immediately throw a little of spilled salt over your left shoulder.
a.
use too much salt
b.
 pour out salt accidentally
8.
It looks silly, but
the baseball players do not mind 
if it helps them win the game.
a.
that is ok with the baseball players
b.
the baseball players do not like to talk about it.
9.
Some superstitions are
contradictory
. In Germany, it is good luck when the left eyetwitches. In Malaysia, it is bad luck when the left eye twitches.
a.
are very cold
b.
mean the opposite
10.
Putting clothes on
inside out 
brings good luck in Pakistan.
a.
In the house, rather than outside
b.
With the inside parts on the outside
11.
People used to think that the soul could escape from the body during a sneeze.
a.
enter 
b.
leave
B. LOOKING AT SPECIAL EXPRESSIONSFind the best way to complete each sentence. Write the letter of your answer on theline.as a result = because of that
 
1
...........The family took the numerologist’s advice. As a result, 
2
...........He overslept. As a result, 
3
...........She did not study; as a result,In addition to = as well as ( In addition to connects two similar ideas)
4
...........In addition to superstitions about the numbers, 
5
...........In addition to studying French, 
6
...........In addition to being an excellent student,According to Mr. Jones = Mr. Jones says that 
7
..........According to a Japanese superstition, 
8
........According to my watch, 
9
..........According to this map,
a.
he was late for work 
b.
she did not do well on the test
c.
millions of people today drive ‘’Toyotas’’ and not ‘’Toyodas’’
d.
she is an excellent dancer and swimmer.
e.
There are many other kinds of superstitions.
f.
He is studying German and Spanish
g.
The museum is on Michigan Avenue.
h.
The first bump means your parents will die.
i.
It is a quarter to nine.
3. COMPREHENSION/READING SKILLSA. UNDERSTANDING THE MAIN IDEASWhat information is not in the story? Draw a line through the three sentences withinformation that is not in the story.
The men in the picture want to prove they are not superstitious.

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