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Performance of Energy Efficient Source Coding and Interference Reduction in Wireless Sensor Network Systems

Performance of Energy Efficient Source Coding and Interference Reduction in Wireless Sensor Network Systems

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Md. Rezaul Hoque Khan, Roberto Passerone, "Performance of Energy Efficient Source Coding and Interference Reduction in Wireless Sensor Network Systems," uksim, pp. 342-347, Tenth International Conference on Computer Modeling and Simulation (uksim 2008), Cambridge, UK, 2008.
Md. Rezaul Hoque Khan, Roberto Passerone, "Performance of Energy Efficient Source Coding and Interference Reduction in Wireless Sensor Network Systems," uksim, pp. 342-347, Tenth International Conference on Computer Modeling and Simulation (uksim 2008), Cambridge, UK, 2008.

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06/14/2009

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Performance of Energy Efficient Source Coding and Interference Reductionin Wireless Sensor Network Systems
Md. Rezaul Hoque Khan, Roberto Passerone
 Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienze dell’InformazioneUniversity of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38100 POVO (TN), ITALY  E-mail: [khan, roberto.passerone]@disi.unitn.it 
 
Abstract
 In this paper, our focus is on energy efficient coding schemes for wireless sensor networks. A source coding and modulation technique for reducing multiple access interference (MAI) as well as for reducing power consumption in MC-CDMA wireless sensor network systems is presented. In all our analysis we consider perfect power control mechanism. Source symbols are represented by a special coding, termed Minimum Energy coding (ME coding), which exploits redundant bits for saving  power when transmitted via RF links with On-Off- Keying. This ME coding is applied to MC-CDMA sensor network systems in order to reduce MAI aswell as to reduce power consumption. The proposed method is aptly suitable for wireless sensor videonode in application of video coding.
1. Introduction
 
Wireless sensor networks hold the promise for awide range of new applications. A sensor web can beused to collect information regarding environment,climate, it can be deployed in a battlefield for intelligence gathering and for scientific investigationson other planets. Because the nodes in wirelesssensor network are powered by battery, energyefficiency has been a focus when devising of transmission for wireless sensor networks. Energyefficient source coding and modulation schememeans longer lifetime of the system. Furthermore,since the networks can be deployed in inaccessible or hostile environments, replacing the batteries that power the individual nodes is undesirable, if notimpossible. Our main goal is to reduce thetransmission power usage in the wireless sensor networks.Since sensor nodes need to last several years on asingle battery, energy saving is a top priority inwireless sensor network research. Low power designstry to reduce total power consumption. Recently,energy efficient calculation algorithms and circuitdesign techniques have been studied, and other authors have proposed scaling circuit voltage andfrequency according to application requirements [1-3]. In [4], a low power, low complexity direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) modem is proposed, which reuses timing recovery circuitry. Nodes in a sensor network communicate with eachother through wireless media and multiple access can be a serious problem due to the high node density.MC-CDMA is a promising multiple access schemefor sensor and ad hoc networks due to its interferenceaveraging properties [5]. The performance of MC-CDMA systems is limited by multiple accessinterference (MAI). In sensor networks, this meansthat nearby nodes can overwhelm the received signalof the desired user. The minimum energy (ME)coding combined with DS-CDMA is proposed toaddress both power savings and MAI problems in [6].ME coding reduces the number of high bits (i.e. the“1” bits) by inserting redundant bits, which result inan increased codeword length (bandwidth) with lesshigh bits. Power saving can be achieved by using On-Off-Keying (OOK) because only the high bits aretransmitted through the channel. As most bits in acodeword are zero, the MAI is also significantlyreduced, allowing nearby users to co-exist andenhancing the bit error rate (BER) performance. Toour knowledge, a performance study of MC-CDMAsensor network systems was yet to be reported.In this paper, a ME MC-CDMA coding is proposed in order to further reduce the receive power and BER. A complete analysis of this minimumenergy (ME) coding scheme is performed. We haveconsidered a channel with frequency-selective fadingthat obeys the Rayleigh distribution. For thecalculation of multiple access interference (MAI) wehave used the Gaussian approximation [7]. Thetransmitter block of the generalized system iselaborated in Figure 1.
Tenth International Conference on Computer Modeling and Simulation
0-7695-3114-8/08 $25.00 © 2008 IEEEDOI342
 
Tenth International Conference on Computer Modeling and Simulation
0-7695-3114-8/08 $25.00 © 2008 IEEEDOI 10.1109/UKSIM.2008.82342
 
Tenth International Conference on Computer Modeling and Simulation
978-0-7695-3114-4/08 $25.00 © 2008 IEEEDOI 10.1109/UKSIM.2008.82342
 
 
Figure 1
:
Transmitter of ME MC-CDMA wirelesssensor network system
 The remainder of this paper is organized asfollows. Section 2 provides a brief motivation background on aspects of ME MC-CDMA wirelesssensor networks systems pertinent to the subject of the paper. Section 3 provides related research in thisfield. Section 4 illustrates Minimum Energy Coding(ME-Coding). Section 5 introduces the followingthree sections by presenting an analytical model for ME MC-CDMA Sensor systems Model. Later sections present simulations and discussion with fewareas for future research.
2. Motivation
Many energy constrained applications demand anenergy efficient design to minimize power consumption and to extend operation lifetime.Having an energy-efficient underlying transmissionand communication mechanism is critical to improvethe overall effectiveness. In terms of power consumption, operation of a wireless sensor node can be divided into three parts: sensing, processing, andtransmission. Among those three operations, it isknown that the most power-consuming task is datatransmission. Approximately, 80% of power consumed in each sensor node is used for datatransmission [8]. So, energy efficient channel coding becomes the focus for WSN coding paradigm.In [9], an extensive research has been conductedon power consumption by data compression and datatransmission in wireless communication. In their experiments, the Compaq Personal Server, which isresearch version of the Compaq iPAQ, was used for data collection instead of wireless sensor nodes, sotheir experimental results may not be totallyapplicable for WSNs. However, it still givessignificant insights of power consumption in data processing and transmission.
3. Related work 
A simple and energy efficient source codedOn/Off Keying modulation and near optimal error detection scheme for wireless applications is presented in [10]. This authors come up with anenergy efficient coded modulation scheme thatconsumes comparatively less power both at systemand circuit level. A simple On/Off keying (OOK)digital modulation scheme is used for this purpose.In [11], source coding and channel codingalgorithms minimizing the battery power needed for RF transmission are presented. The authors firstformulate the minimum energy-coding problem for RF transmission. They derive the energy-optimalsource-coding algorithm from the source statistics.Finally, they combine this energy-optimal source-coding algorithm with Hamming Codes for energyefficient error recovery. Overall, it takes a first steptowards a novel energy saving wirelesscommunication protocol.C. Chien et al. present a direct sequence spread-spectrum modem architecture that provides robustcommunications for wireless sensor networks whiledissipating very low power [12]. An On-Off keying based minimum-energy coding scheme with coherentreceiver has been shown to provide better  performance than BPSK [13]. This paper presents aclosed-form expression of the BER performance of that scheme over an AWGN channel with either acoherent receiver or a non-coherent receiver. Wang
et al.
[14] showed BPSK is a preferred energy efficientscheme for low-data rate applications. A simpledigital modulation technique such as OOK is totallyignored due to its low error performance. ME-codingwas originally proposed by Erin and Asada [15]. Inan effort to take advantage of OOK’s feature (i.e.,having to transmit only high bits), they map thesource data bits into codewords that have fewer high bits in them and codewords with fewer high bits areassigned to messages with higher probabilities.
4. Minimum Energy Coding (ME-Coding)
For low data-rate wireless applications, thesimplest form of digital modulation technique likeOn/Off keying (OOK) can also be considered. InOOK, the base band signal modulates a carrier waveat a higher frequency
 f 
c
 
and transmits it as RF waves.That is, a carrier signal is transmitted when a bit-1 isto be sent and no signal is transmitted when a bit-0 isto be sent. Figure 1 shows OOK transmitted signalsfor a sequence of bits. Hence, the transmitter expendsenergy only when transmitting a signal for bit-1.Thus, for a system that uses OOK modulation
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technique, the obvious way to reduce the energyconsumed would be to reduce the number of bit-1’stransmitted compared to the bit-0’s. Since we have nocontrol over the information source, the only way toreduce the high bits (bit-1s) would be to map a set of information bit sequence to a constant lengthcodeword (ME Code) which has fewer bit-1’s in it.This is originally based on the idea proposed by Erinand Asada [16]. They have formulated the power optimization problem for wireless communicationapplications with message source of known statistics.They bring about the reduction in energyconsumption in two steps. Firstly, use a set of codesthat have a smaller number of high bits. Secondly,they assign these set of codes to the messages in sucha way that codes with fewer ones are assigned tomessages of higher probabilities. They have alsotaken one step towards improving the performance of these codes by simple concatenation process. Their approach of ME Coding cannot be applied to sourceswith unknown statistics. We keep the basic idea of ME-Coding (source-bits mapped to code-bits) for source with unknown statistics (unknown probabilities of occurrence of symbols) and use avery simple near optimal detection process toimprove the performance of ME-coding, thus proposing a new approach towards ME-coding.
Figure 2
:
 
Block Diagram of ME Mapping Scheme
 
5. Analytical Model for ME MC-CDMAWireless Sensor Network Systems Model
In our present work, we have designed an energyefficient analytical model for ME MC-CDMAwireless sensor networks systems. We have taken asystem with K number of users, L number of multipath, N number of subcarriers and G
 
is the processing gain. The chip length T
c
is given by T
c
=T
 b
/G where T
 b
is the bit interval duration.
 
In the following sections, we will analyze thesystem performance with respect to SINR and BER.
5.1 Transmitted Signal Model
At the transmitter side, the configuration of anEnergy-Efficient MC-CDMA system combined withthe ME source coding. Data sources, k through K, arecoded with the ME coding having sufficientredundant bits. The coded data stream having a bitduration of T
 b
is serial-to-parallel converted to N parallel substreams. The new bit duration of eachsubstream or the symbol duration is T
s
=NT
 b
. After serial-to-parallel conversion, the n-th substreammodulates a subcarrier frequency f 
n
using On-Off-Keying (OOK) for n=1,2,……N. Then, the Nsubcarrier-modulated substreams are added in order to form the complex modulated signal. Finally, eachchannel of signal is spreaded with a unique pseudorandom (PN) sequence. The PN sequence,however, applies only to high bits of source code
;
for low bits, no spread signals are produced. Therefore,the transmitted signal of user can be expressed as:
 
)
cos()()(2)(
n
kn
m P 
θ ω 
τ τ 
+
=
 (1)where
 P 
is the power of the transmitted signal,
c
ω 
 is the common carrier frequency,
θ 
is a phase shiftoffset,
m
(t) and
(t) are the data and spreadingsignals for the k-th receiver respectively and
τ 
is arandom transmission delay calculated with respect toreference transmitted signal, accounting for the lack of synchronization among the users.The data signal
m
(t) can be expressed as follows[17]
))1(,((t)m
)(
 J  jT m
 j j
+=
−∞=
(2)and the signature sequence signal
))1(,((t)c
)(
cc j j
 J  jT c
+=
−∞=
(3)where
)(
 j
m
{-1,1},
),(
21
is the unitrectangular pulse on [t
1
, t
2
), and
}1,1{c
(k)
 j
with
)((k)
c
 N  j j
c
+
=
. Because we are using ME coding tocode the data,
)1()0(
=>>=
 j j
m P m P 
.We assume the total number of asynchronoususers is K and each sensor node has N subcarriers.Furthermore, it is assumed that the chip rate and the bit rate of message signals are fixed so that the processing gain G, is fixed by the ratio of the chiprate and the bit rate. Under these assumptions, whenK signals obeying the form of “(1)” are transmittedover the frequency-selective fading channels, thereceived signal including the other-user interference,fading and the background noise at the base Node can be modeled as
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