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IP based mobility management

IP based mobility management

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11) Md. Akber Hossain, Md. Rezaul Haque Khan, “IP based mobility management” in International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences and Engineering (CISSE 07), December 3 -12, 2007, University of Bridgeport, USA.
11) Md. Akber Hossain, Md. Rezaul Haque Khan, “IP based mobility management” in International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences and Engineering (CISSE 07), December 3 -12, 2007, University of Bridgeport, USA.

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IP Based Mobility Management forNext Generation Wireless Networks
Md. Akbar Hossain
, Khan Md. Rezaul Hoque
Department of Telecommunication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Department of Information and Communication Technology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Trento, ItalyEmail : mdakbar.hossain@studenti.unitn.it, khan@dit.unitn.it
During the last decade wireless systems hasexperienced tremendous demands from social market.Subscribers now want a wider choice of services, better quality,faster response times, and greater coverage, which enhance thedevelopment of wireless technology than ever before. Amongthese, one of the greatest concerning problems for seamless globalconnectivity of mobile user is mobility management. The aim of this paper is to analyze the IP based Mobility management fornext generation wireless networks. By the way of mobilitymanagement it is possible to locate roaming terminals for calldelivery and maintain connections with mobile terminal thatchanges their points of attachment. In this paper it is alsodiscussed how several type of mobility can be solved by Mobile IPand cellular IP.
 Now a days wireless communication systems are thefastest growing area of the communication sector. The protocol of IP plays an important role in the field of mobility management in various types of wirelessnetworks. One of the key features of 4G is that it will be based on an all-IP infrastructure for both fixed andmobile networks. Moreover, positioning on networlayer, IP acts as a masking isolator that prevents the protocols, services, and applications of upper layers fromthe awareness of network interconnecting architectureand possible changes caused. So, as a suitable layer tosolve the problem of mobility and provide transparentmobility to applications and higher level protocols likeTCP, IP becomes one of the most important researchissues in mobility and location management, whichresults in various techniques and standards based on theextension of fundamental IP protocol proposed. The maingoal of the mobile IP working group is to develop routingsupport to permit IP nodes (hosts and routers) usingeither IPv4 or IPv6 to seamlessly "roam" among IP subnetworks and media types.This article is organized as a general description andoperation of mobile IP and IP based mobilitymanagement in section 2. In section 3 mobile IPoptimization and advantages of MIPV6 are alsoFig. 1
Architecture of Mobile IPdiscussed. Intra-Domain Mobility management isdescribed in section 4. Cellular IP as a solution of mobility management for next generation wirelesscommunication is also describe in section 5.
A simple Mobile IP architecture is illustrated in Fig. 1.In this example, the CN sends packets to the MN via theMN's HA and the FA.IP-based networking is designedsuch that each host is identified by a unique IP address.Standard IP routing assumes that IP addresses aredistributed hierarchically. For example, a host with acertain subnet prefix is assumed to be located at thesubnet referenced by that prefix, the home network. Thisdual use of IP addresses is fine when hosts are notmobile, as each host can be assigned its unique IP addressaccording to the hierarchical structure needed for IProuting. However, it creates a problem when hosts needto be mobile. If a host moves to a foreign network, packets for it will still be routed to its home network.Furthermore, a host may obtain a temporary address inthe foreign network for routing purposes, but there is no
The paper is published in International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences and Engineering(CISSE 07), December 3 -12, 2007, University of Bridgeport, USA.
Fig. 2.
Mobile IP with foreign agentassociation between its temporary and permanentaddresses. In MIP, each Mobile Host (MH) is stillidentified by its permanent IP address. However, for routing purposes, when an MH is roaming it obtains atemporary care-of-address (COA), which is a foreignnetwork address that identifies the location of the MH.The MH registers this COA with a mobility agent in itshome network known as its Home Agent (HA). The HAthen stores the COA of the MH in a binding cache. Nodescommunicating with the MH send packets addressed toits permanent address. These packets are routed to theMH’s home network, where it’s HA intercepts them andtunnels them (encapsulated) to its COA. The MHregisters its latest COA with it’s HA whenever its COA ischanges, which occurs when the MH moves to another foreign network. It should also refreshes the registrationwith it’s HA periodically. MIP can operate in two modes,namely with foreign agents or with co-located COAs,illustrated respectively in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3.In the mode with foreign agents, the visited network hasa Foreign Agent (FA). The FA broadcasts its IP addressesthat can be used as COAs. The MH picks a valid IPaddress of the FA as its COA and registers this with it’sHA (in this mode, the registration goes through the FArather than directly to and from the HA). When packetsarrive for the MH at the FA tunneled from the HA, theyare un-encapsulated and forwarded to the MH through itslayer 2 address previously registered with the FA. On theother hand, in the mode with co-located COAs, the MHwould obtain a temporary IP address at the foreignnetwork using a protocol such as DHCP (Dynamic HostConfiguration Protocol). The MH would use thistemporary IP address as its COA and registers this withHA.
Fig. 3.
Mobile IP with collocated COA
Fig. 4.
Mobile IP with Route Optimization
To solve the problem of triangular routing, MIP withRoute Optimization [3] (MIP-RO) has been proposed inFig. 4. In order to use MIP-RO, a CH must understand binding updates and be able to tunnel packets to a COA,while the MH must send binding updates to the CH toupdate it on the MHs location. The binding updateinforms the CH of the COA of the MH and hence the CHcan tunnel packets to the COA without going through theHA. Several new messages, including “binding warning”,“binding update”, “binding request”, and “bindingacknowledge”, are used to maintain the correct COA binding. While MIP-RO deals with the triangular routing problem, it does not address the issue of micro-mobilitymanagement. IPv6 is defined in the IETF working groupof IP Next Generation [4], by providing enhancementsover the capabilities of existing IPv4 service. Basicimprovements to IPv4 include optimal header format,reasonable addressing architecture, neighbor discoverymechanism, stateless auto-configuration, and security andQoS support. Mobility support in IPv6 takes fulladvantage of these enhancements. Three advantages of MIPv6 are apparent: (a) route optimization is facilitated,
The paper is published in International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences and Engineering(CISSE 07), December 3 -12, 2007, University of Bridgeport, USA.
Fig. 5
Mobile IPV6without needing to be concerned about whether the CHscan understand binding updates, as with MIP-RO; (b)explicit binding updates or MIP registration messages become unnecessary, as the destination options arenaturally piggy-backed on IP data packets; and (c) packets from CH to MH need not be encapsulated but aresent directly to the MH with its COA in the source route.The 3
advantage just mentioned also is due to the wayIPv6 makes source routing possible which is shown infig. 5.
To implement a fast and seamless handoff and aminimized control traffic micro mobility managementsolution are used for intra domain mobility management
Micro-mobility solutions that use a hierarchy of mobilityagents include MIP with Regional Registration [5] (MIP-RR), and TeleMIP
Intra-Domain Mobility managementProtocol [6] (IDMP). MIP-RR perhaps involves thefewest modifications to MIP. In a foreign network, thetwo level mobility hierarchy contains the upper-layer GFA (Gateway Foreign Agent) and several lower-layer RFAs (Regional Foreign Agent). All MHs under the GFAshare the same COA. When a MH moves to another FAunder the same GFA, it only needs to register with thenew RFA and with the GFA. This is because its HAalready knows how to route packets addressed to the MHto that GFA. It does not need to register with its HAunless it moves under a new GFA. Suppose an MHmoves between subnets under a GFA with which it isalready registered. As shown in Fig. 6(b), the MHinitiates its registration with FA2. Then the registrationrequest is sent to GFA1. Since MN is already registeredwith GFA1, GFA1 does not initiate a home registration toHA, but just sends the registration reply to the MH
Fig. 6
MIP Regional Registration (a) movement betweenregions; (b) movement within a region
Fig. 7
Cellular IPthrough FA2. Since the HA does not need to be contactedin this scenario, MIP-RR reduces the handoff latencycaused by registration with Home Agent. If the MHchanges its GFA, it needs to register with its HA. Asshown in Fig. 6(a), the MH moves from FA3 to FA2, andits GFA is no longer GFA2. The MH sends a registrationrequest to its new RFA, which is FA2, and then GFA1.Because GFA1 is a new GFA, it has to register with theHA.
The cellular IP architecture in Fig. 7 consists of interconnected Cellular IP nodes (also known as Cellular IP base stations), these Cellular IP nodes communicatewith Cellular IP mobile hosts. The Cellular IP gateway isa special Cellular IP Node as one of its interfaces isconnected to a fixed standard IP network. The cellular IP base stations emits beacons on regular basis, this allowsthe mobile host to locate their nearest base station. Whena Mobile host finds its nearest base station it sends aroute update message to its connected base station, this
The paper is published in International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences and Engineering(CISSE 07), December 3 -12, 2007, University of Bridgeport, USA.

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