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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Published by MOTASEM

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: MOTASEM on May 11, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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CHAPTER 1: Introduction:
Flow measurement is an important field in fluid mechanics and modernindustries, such as petrol measurements, as well as food industries, whereeverything must be counted in a suitable manner, to achieve the required productwith the accepted conditions and specifications.in the other hand to measure the flow, there are many types of deviceswhich are used to do so, the variation in the device depends on the flow state, suchas if it is isothermal, viscous flow, liquid or gas, and for gas measurement, we haveto take gas compressibility in to our calculation.Such a device is called (Flow Measurement devices) as examples of thesedevices:1-
Thermal anemometer.2-
Pressure transducers.4-
Turbine flow measurement.A thermal anemometer, controlled at a fixed temperature above theambient, responds to convective heat transfer. With forced convective heattransfer, the output is proportional to the sensor¶s Reynolds number (Re). Lookingat the Reynolds number terms we can see how it measures mass rate per unit area.It does NOT measure volumetric flow rate but a density weighted version know asstandard flow rate. The thermal anemometer automatically compensates for density because it responds to the Reynolds number.
2.1 Definition:
A thermal anemometer uses a heated probe element that is insertedinto an airstream. Air speed can then be inferred from the heating power necessaryto maintain the probe at a temperature elevation. This power should be some way proportional to air speed.In this device an electrically heated wire is placed in the gas pathway,which is cooled by the gas flow (Figure 5). The degree of cooling depends on thegas flow rate, which can thus be calculated. A modification of this device uses aheated screen or film instead of a wire.The hot wire (usually platinum) has an operating temperature as high as 400°C,and is incorporated into a balanced Wheatstone bridge circuit. Cooling the wirechanges its resistance and unbalances the bridge. Most designs work on theconstant temperature system, whereby a correcting current is applied through thehot wire to compensate for the cooling effect of the gas, maintaining a constant
wire temperature and thus restoring the balance in the Wheatstone bridge. Thiscurrent is measured and from it the gas flow rate is determined. To compensate for changes in the gas temperature, a second wire is usually incorporated, which ismaintained at ambient temperature. Minor corrections are also made according tothe gascomposition, to accommodate the variation in specific heat capacity, but hotwire anemometry is generally extremely accurate.This cooling effect occurs with flow in either direction, and so to measure exhaledtidal volume the hot wire anemometer is placed in the expiratory limb of thecircuit. It can be modified to provide information about the direction of flow byusing an additional heated wire placed just downstream from a small bar, as shownin Figure 5b. This bar shelters the wire from the full cooling effects of flow in onedirection but not the other, and thus inspiratory and expiratory flows can becalculated separately. For this purpose the sensor must be placed in the Y-piece of the circuit. This technique is particularly useful for neonatal ventilation.
2.2 Fundamental Concepts
:Thermal anemometer (hot wire anemometer) is a device for measuring the mass flow rate with the help of heat and mass transfer concepts.The thermal anemometer measure the mass unit area flow rate, so itmeasures the true velocity of the fluid, but the process must be done at fixedtemperature above the ambient temperature, so it will respond to the convectiveheat transfer, so by the forced convection, the output will be proportional tosensors Reynolds number, and because Reynolds number measures the density, notthe volumetric flow rate, which is known as (standard flow rate).
2.2.1 Reynolds Number
Reynolds Number Is a dimensionless number which gives the ration between the inertial forces (
) to the viscous forces (
VL).Re =
«««««««««««««««««««««««Eqn (2.1)Where:
= Actual Density of the flow.V = Actual Velocity.

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