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English and American Gastronomy456.

English and American Gastronomy456.

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Published by: cocis_amalia on May 11, 2010
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 English And AmericanGastronomy
is the study of the relationship between culture and food. It is often thought erroneously that the term gastronomy refers exclusively to the art of cooking but this is only a small part of this discipline; it cannot always be said that a cook is also a gourmet. Gastronomy studies various cultural components with food as its central axis. Thus it is related to the Fine Arts and Social Sciences, and even to the Natural Sciences in terms of the digestive system of thehuman body.
 A gourmet's principal activities involve discovering, tasting, experiencing, researching,understanding and writing about foods. Gastronomy is therefore an interdisciplinaryactivity. Good observation will reveal that around the food, there exist dance, dramatic arts, painting, sculpture, literature, architecture, and music; in other words, the Fine Arts. But it also involves physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology, geology, agronomy, and alsoanthropology, history, philosophy, psychology, and sociology. The application of scientificknowledge to cooking and gastronomy has become known as molecular gastronomy.The first formal study of gastronomy is probably The Physiology of Taste by Jean Anthelm Brillat-Savarin (early 19th century). As opposed to the traditional cooking recipe books, it  studies the relationship between the senses and food, treating enjoyment at the table as a science. Most recently, in 2004, the founders of the Slow Food movement founded theUniversity of Gastronomic Sciences in Bra, Italy, devoted to the principles of gastronomy.Other centres for the study of gastronomy include the School of Oriental and African Studiesof the University of London through its Food Studies Centre, the University of Adelaidethrough its Master of Arts in Gastronomy program run in cooperation with Le Cordon Bleu, New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development through its Department of Nutrition, Food Studies, and Public Health, the Universities of  Barcelona Bologn, and of François Rabelais in Tours through their Master in the Historyand Culture of Food, and Boston University through its Master of Liberal Arts inGastronomy program. Etymologically, the word "gastronomy" is derived from Ancient Greek γαστήρ (gastér)"stomach", and νόμος (nómos) "knowledge" or "law".
is the process of preparing food by applying heat, selecting, measuring and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure for producing safe and edible food. The process encompasses a vast range of methods, tools and combinations of ingredients to alter the flavor, appearance, texture, or digestibility of food. Factors affecting the final outcomeinclude the variability of ingredients, ambient conditions, tools, and the skill of the individual doing the actual cooking.The diversity of cooking worldwide is a reflection of the aesthetic, agricultural, economic,cultural, social and religious diversity throughout the nations, races, creeds and tribesacross the globe. Applying heat to a food usually, though not always, chemically transforms it, thus changing its flavor, texture, consistency, appearance, and nutritional properties. Methods of cooking that involve the boiling of liquid in a receptacle have been practised at least since the 10thmillennium BC, with the introduction of pottery.
The application of scientific knowledge to cooking andgastronomy hasbecome known asmolecular gastronomy . This is a subdiscipline of food science. Important contributions have been made by scientists, chefs and
authors such asHerve This(chemist),Nicholas Kurti(physicist),Peter  Barham(physicist),Harold McGee(author),Shirley Corriher (biochemist, author),Heston Blumenthal(chef),Ferran Adria(chef),Robert Wolke  (chemist, author) andPierre Gagnaire(chef).Chemical processes central to cooking include theMaillard reaction- aform of non-enzymatic browning involving an amino acid, a reducingsugar, and heat.History of cookingThere is, as yet, no clear evidence as to when cooking was invented.Richard Wranghamargues that cooking was invented as far back as 1.8million to 2.3 million years ago. Other researchers believe that cookingwas invented as late as 40,000 or 10,000 years ago. Evidence of fire isinconclusive as wildfires started by lightning-strikes are still common inEast Africa and other wild areas, and it is difficult to determine as to whenfire was used for cooking, as opposed to just being used for warmth or for keeping predators away. Most anthropologists contend that cooking firesbegan in earnest barely 250,000 years ago, when ancient hearths, earthovens, burnt animal bones, and flint appear across Europe and the middleEast. Back 2 million years ago, the only sign of fire is burnt earth withhuman remains, which most anthropologists consider coincidence rather than evidence of intentional fire.
Effects on nutritional content of foodCooking prevents many foodborne illnessesthat would otherwise occur if the raw food was eaten. Cooking also increases the digestibility of somefoods such as grains. Many foods are inedible raw. For examplekidney beansare toxic when raw, due to the chemical phytohaemagglutinin.
.Proponents of Raw foodismargue that cooking food increases the risk of some of detrimental effects on food or health. They point out that thecooking of vegetables and fruit containingvitamin cboth elutes thevitamin into the cooking water and degrades the vitamin throughoxidation. Peeling vegetables can also substantially reduce the vitamin Ccontent , especially in the case of  potatoeswhere most vitamin C is in theskin.
However, research has also suggested that a greater  proportion of nutrients present in food is absorbed from cooked foodsthan from uncooked foods.

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