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Biology 2nd Semester Exam Study Guide

Biology 2nd Semester Exam Study Guide

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Published by: Josh Medrano on May 12, 2010
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WALNUT HILLS HIGH SCHOOLBIOLOGY SECOND SEMESTER STUDY GUIDE(DETAILED)2010IF SOMETHING IS LEFT OUT, PLEASE COMMENT ONBLOG POST.For online textbook support, please go tohttp://www.glencoe.com/sec/science/ose/bdol2005/ca/docs/frontmat.pdf  
 
2
BIOLOGY 2
ND
SEMESTER EXAMSTUDY GUIDE
Chapter 11: DNA and Genes
Vocabulary
 
nitrogen base
 – 
carbon ring structure found in DNA or RNA that contain one or more atoms of nitrogen; includes
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
, and
uracil
 
 
replication
 
 – 
a process in which the DNA in the chromosomes are copied; takes place before cell division
 
transcription
 
 – 
process in the cell nucleus where enzymes make an RNA copy of a DNA strand
 
translation
 
 – 
process of converting information in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in a protein
 
mutation
 
 – 
any change or random error in a DNA sequence
 
codon
 
 – 
set of three nitrogen bases that represents an amino acid; order of nitrogen bases in mRNA determinesthe type and order of amino acids in a protein
Differences between DNA and RNA
 
DNA RNA
Deoxyribose Ribosedouble-stranded single-strandedhas thymine instead of thymine, uracil
 Base pairing in DNA/RNA
ADENINE
 THYMINE/URACILA-T/UGUANINE
CYTOSINEG-C
 
3
Chapter 12: Heredity
Pedigrees
 
 – 
Graphic representation of genetic inheritance used to mapgenetic traits
 
Geneticists use symbols to makeand analyze a pedigree.
o
 
If a pedigree represents arecessive trait, then therecessive allele is transmittedfrom generation to generation.
o
 
If a pedigree represents adominant trait, then the allelewould be equally distributed tomales and females in eachgeneration.
Genetic DiseasesDisease Inheritance Details PopularityCystic Fibrosis
Recessive defective protein in the plasma membrane; resultsin the formation and accumulation of thick mucusin the lungs and digestive tractWhite Americans
Tay Sachs
Recessive absence of enzyme that normally breaks down alipid produced and stored in tissues of the centralnervous systemUnited States
 – 
Amishand Ashkenazic Jews
HuntingtonDisease
Dominant results in a breakdown of certain areas of the brain;results in death before the affected individual couldhave children
Sickle CellAnemia
Codominant defective hemoglobin forms crystal-like structuresthat change the shape of the red blood cells; personsuffers from anemiaAfrican-Americans
PKU
Recessive results from the absence of an enzyme Swedish or Norweigan
Vocabulary
 
complete dominance
 
 – 
 inheritance where in adominant trait is completelydominant over the recessivetrait
 
incomplete dominance
 
 – 
 inheritance pattern where thephenotype of a heterozygote isintermediate between those of the two homozygote; neitherallele of the pair is dominantbut combine and play a newtrait

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