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Derivations of Applied Mathematics

Thaddeus H. BlackRevised 7 January 2009

iiThaddeus H. Black, 1967–.Derivations of Applied Mathematics.7 January 2009.U.S. Library of Congress class QA401.Copyrightc

1983–2009 by Thaddeus H. Black

thb@derivations.org

.Published by the Debian Project [15].This book is free software. You can redistribute and/or modify it under theterms of the GNU General Public License [22], version 2.

Contents

Preface xvii1 Introduction 1

1.1 Applied mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Rigor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2.1 Axiom and deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2.2 Mathematical extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.3 Complex numbers and complex variables . . . . . . . . . . . 51.4 On the text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

I The calculus of a single variable 7

2 Classical algebra and geometry 9

2.1 Basic arithmetic relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.1.1 Commutivity, associativity, distributivity . . . . . . . 92.1.2 Negative numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.1.3 Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.1.4 The change of variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.2 Quadratics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.3 Integer and series notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.4 The arithmetic series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.5 Powers and roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.5.1 Notation and integral powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.5.2 Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.5.3 Powers of products and powers of powers . . . . . . . 212.5.4 Sums of powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.5.5 Summary and remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.6 Multiplying and dividing power series . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23iii

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