Aerobic biological treatment techniques are widely used to treat mixed textile waste water. In most cases, complete-mix activatedsludge systems are used. The description and performance of this type of technique is treated in detail in another BREF ([196,EIPPCB, 2001]).Textile waste water is a mixture of many different chemical compounds which can roughly be classified into easilybiodegradable, hardly biodegradable (recalcitrant) and non-biodegradable compounds. In activated sludge systems, easilybiodegradable compounds are mineralised, whereas hardly biodegradable compounds need special conditions, such as low food-to-mass-ratios (F/M) (< 0.15 kg BOD5/kg MLSS · d, or even <0.05 for mineralisation below optimum temperatures), adaptation(when the compounds are discharged very regularly) and temperature higher than 15 °C (which is normally the case for textilewaste water).F/M is the most relevant design parameter. If they remain under the mentioned F/M value, hardly biodegradable chemicals, suchas nitrilotriacetate (NTA) («GDCh, 1984»), m-nitrobenzene sulphonate and its corresponding amine («Kölbener, 1995»),polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) («Schönberger, 1997») and phosphonates («Nowack, 1998») are degradaded and mineralised.Today, many activated sludge systems meet these system conditions (see following examples), which also enables almostcomplete nitrification. In these conditions, both readily and hardly biodegradable compounds can be degraded. On the contrary,effluents containing non-biodegradable compounds should be treated/pretreated at the source (see Section
), but this isdone only in a few mills. In most cases, in addition to activated sludge further treatment steps are carried out, such asflocculation/ precipitation, coagulation/adsorption/precipitation, adsorption to activated carbon and ozonation.Other techniques combine the biological degradation process with physical adsorption, coagulation and advanced oxidationprocesses. These techniques are described in Section
The treatment plant receives municipal waste water and effluent from four large textile finishing mills. The textile waste water isequalised and then mixed with primarily treated municipal waste water. The textile waste water accounts for about 45 % of thehydraulic load and about 60 % of the COD load. After primary treatment and equalisation, there is a biological treatment,including nitrification/denitrification and flocculation with FeCl
as final step (FeCl
has the disadvantage of introducingadditional chloride ions in the system, which are a source of corrosion problems). The system can be seen from
shows the daily measured average COD concentration of the final effluent. The values vary within asignificant range, reflecting fluctuations during the week, rainy days (because storm water enters the same sewer) and holidaytime (very low values are recorded at the end of August which is the holiday time for companies).