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Creole Tutorial Assignment

Creole Tutorial Assignment

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Published by Shivana Allen

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Published by: Shivana Allen on May 12, 2010
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Faculty of Humanities and EducationEnglish Language and Literature with Education
Creole Linguistics
Due Date: Friday 22
An annotated bibliography on the Genesis of Creoles and Pidgins
A review of selected publications on from 1998 to presentThis is an annotated bibliography of sources which contribute to an understanding of the
Genesisof Creole and Pidgin Languages.
This compilation of sources is especially important due to theneed for acceptance of the real nature of Creole languages and the study of these languages asviable and necessitous. It is worth mention at this early stage that this list is by no meansexhausted and that the works cited here are by recognized and reliable sources. Much researchhas been done to check the validity of each author by cross referencing their works and sourceswith those of other authors using online tools, namely Google scholar, I determined validity bynoting the number of citations they had within articles of known Creolists e.g. Claire Lefebvre.
Lefebvre, Claire. "Relexification in creole genesis and its effects on the development of thecreole." Creole and Contact. Ed. Tonjes Veenestra and Norval Smith. Vol. 23. Amsterdam:John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2001. 323.
Claire Lefebvre looks at Relexification as one key process in the genesis of Creole languages.Creole languages she explicitly states “are mixed languages in that they derive some of their  properties from those of their substratum languages and some of their properties from those of the super stratum language.” (Lefebvre, Relexification in creole genesis and its effects on thedevelopment of the creole) Lefebvre carefully and scientifically examines the three key stages tothe development of a Creole language using Haitian Creole, Sranan, Saramacan and other creolesin contrast to French as the superstrate language. She observes that the genesis of these
languages is by no means a random compilation of contact languages, rather that a series of  processes take place, said processes are Relexification, Dialect Leveling and Reanalysis. Her  basis for making this general observation is that she has noticed in many Creoles that “the use of morphemes borrowed by a pidgin or a Creole language (…) from a European language oftendiverges from the use of the source morpheme in the source language” and often correspondingto the use of the corresponding word in the substratum language.” (Lefebvre, Relexification increole genesis and its effects on the development of the creole) Thus Relexification builds a newCreole lexicon by placing lexical entries borrowed from the superstrate in lexical categories of the substrate and using phonological representations from the superstrate language for these saidentries. Where the superstrate language has no phonological representation and nullrepresentation is given to them. Dialect leveling further narrows the Creole languages grammar in that Lefebvre recognizes there would exist numerous substrate languages at the onset thegenesis of any one Creole, so Relexification may produce a number of varieties so somedifferences are leveled out by this process. Additionally and finally re-analysis takes place “thisis a process through which a particular phonological entry comes to be associated with another lexical entry…” (Lefebvre, Relexification in creole genesis and its effects on the development of the creole)Lefebvre’s break down of the three processes indeed really answered to some extent the questionof how much of either language is mixed, the idea that the substrate is a base for a Creole and notsolely a lexifier is further clarified by Lefebvre’s description since she focuses on not only the borrowing of lexical items but also for phonology.

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