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Published by Peter Black

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Published by: Peter Black on May 13, 2010
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01/25/2014

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1
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK

------------------------------------------------------------------x
ARISTA RECORDS LLC; ATLANTIC RECORDING
CORPORATION; BMG MUSIC; CAPITOL
RECORDS, INC; ELEKTRA ENTERTAINMENT
GROUP INC; INTERSCOPE RECORDS; LAFACE
RECORDS LLC; MOTOWN RECORD COMPANY,
L.P.; PRIORITY RECORDS LLC; SONY BMG
MUSIC ENTERTAINMENT; UMG RECORDINGS,
INC; VIRGIN RECORDS AMERICA, INC.; and

06 CV 5936 (KMW)
WARNER BROS. RECORDS INC.,
OPINION & ORDER

Plaintiffs,
-against-
LIME GROUP LLC; LIME WIRE LLC; MARK

GORTON; GREG BILDSON; and M.J.G. LIME WIRE
FAMILY LIMITED PARTNERSHIP,
Defendants.
------------------------------------------------------------------x
KIMBA M. WOOD, U.S.D.J.:
I.
Introduction

Plaintiffs are thirteen major record companies that collectively produce, manufacture,
distribute, sell, and license \u201cthe vast majority of copyrighted sound recordings sold in the United
States.\u201d (First Am. Compl. \u00b6 1.) Plaintiffs raise various federal and state law claims of
secondary copyright infringement against Lime Wire LLC (LW); Mark Gorton, the Chairman
and sole Director of LW; Lime Group LLC (\u201cLime Group\u201d); and the M.J.G. Lime Wire Family
Limited Partnership (\u201cLime Wire FLP\u201d) (collectively, \u201cDefendants\u201d) for their role in distribution
of the LimeWire software program (\u201cLimeWire\u201d). LimeWire permits users of the program to
share digital files over the Internet. Plaintiffs allege that LimeWire users employ LimeWire to

2
obtain and share unauthorized copies of Plaintiffs\u2019 sound recordings, and that Defendants
facilitate this infringement by distributing and maintaining LimeWire.1

Plaintiffs raise the following claims against LW, Lime Group, and Gorton: (1)
inducement of copyright infringement; (2) contributory copyright infringement; (3) vicarious
copyright infringement; and (4) state common law copyright infringement and unfair
competition.2 Plaintiffs also raise a state law fraudulent conveyance claim against Gorton and
Lime Wire FLP, and a claim for unjust enrichment against Lime Wire FLP.

The parties now move for summary judgment. Plaintiffs move for partial summary
judgment on their claims of (1) inducement of infringement; (2) contributory infringement; and
(3) common law infringement and unfair competition. LW, Gorton, and Lime Group move for
summary judgment on each of these claims, and on Plaintiffs\u2019 claim of vicarious copyright
infringement.3 Gorton and Lime Wire FLP move for summary judgment on Plaintiffs\u2019
fraudulent conveyance and unjust enrichment claims. Defendants also have submitted a number
of motions to exclude evidence submitted by Plaintiffs in support of their motion for summary
judgment.

1 The case was transferred to the undersigned in October 2009 following the Honorable Gerard
E. Lynch\u2019s appointment to the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
2 LW filed (1) antitrust counterclaims against Plaintiffs pursuant to Sections 1 and 2 of the

Sherman Antitrust Act, 15 U.S.C. \u00a7\u00a7 1 and 2, and Section 4 of the Clayton Act, Act, 15 U.S.C.
\u00a715; and (2) ancillary counterclaims under New York State law for conspiracy in restraint of
trade, deceptive trade practices, and tortious interference with prospective business relations.
The Court dismissed LW\u2019s claims in 2007. Arista Records LLC v. Lime Group LLC, 532 F.
Supp. 2d 556 (S.D.N.Y. 2007).

3 A joint amicus brief was submitted by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Center for

Democracy and Technology, Computer & Communications Industry Association, Consumer
Electronics Association, Home Recording Rights Coalition, Information Technology Association
of America, Public Knowledge, Special Libraries Association, and U.S. Internet Industry
Association.

3

For the reasons stated below, the Court: (1) DENIES Defendants\u2019 motions to exclude
evidence;4 (2) GRANTS Plaintiffs\u2019 motion for summary judgment on the claim against LW of
inducement of copyright infringement, and DENIES LW\u2019s motion for summary judgment on the
claim; (3) DENIES the parties\u2019 cross-motions for summary judgment on the claim against LW of
contributory copyright infringement; (4) DENIES LW\u2019s motion for summary judgment on the
claim of vicarious copyright infringement; (5) GRANTS Plaintiffs\u2019 motion for summary
judgment on their claims against LW for common law copyright infringement and unfair
competition, and DENIES Defendants\u2019 motion for summary judgment on these claims; (6)
GRANTS Plaintiffs\u2019 motions for summary judgment on the claims against Gorton and Lime
Group for inducement of copyright infringement, common law infringement, and unfair
competition, and DENIES Defendants\u2019 motions for summary judgment on these claims; (7)
DENIES the parties\u2019 motions for summary judgment on the claims against Gorton and Lime
Group for contributory copyright infringement and vicarious copyright infringement; and (8)
DENIES Gorton\u2019s and Lime Wire FLP\u2019s motion for summary judgment on the fraudulent
conveyance and unjust enrichment claims.

II. Factual Background
Unless otherwise noted, the following facts are undisputed by the parties:
A. File-Sharing Programs
Over the last several years, technologies have developed that make it inexpensive and
easy to record, distribute, and share music via the Internet. Many artists now digitally record
4 Except that, as set forth below, the Court (1) strikes three statements from the September 26,

2008 declaration of Greg Bildson; (2) places conditions on Plaintiffs\u2019 future meetings and
conversations with Bildson; and (3) excludes certain exhibits containing emails and internet
forum postings written by Adam Fisk, a former LW employee, after his employment with LW
had ended.

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