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Blast Course Work

Blast Course Work

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Published by fatabass
University of Sheffield - Structural Engineering - Masters - MSC - Blast and Impact - Blast Loading - Structures - Blast Resistance of Structures - Blast Resistance
University of Sheffield - Structural Engineering - Masters - MSC - Blast and Impact - Blast Loading - Structures - Blast Resistance of Structures - Blast Resistance

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Published by: fatabass on May 13, 2010
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Blast Loading Capacity of a One
Way Spanning Carbon FibreReinforced Plastic Beam
This report will investigate the blast loading capability of a simple supported one
way spanning carbonfibre reinforced plastic panel.
(kN / m
, and
will be used
thru thereport.The properties for this material are:Yield Strength Shear Strength Density Elastic Modulus205000 KPa 118000 KPa
1612 kg/m
111 x 10
 Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic
is a high yield stress, relatively high stiff material, which exhibits little or
no ductility
. Therefore, for the analysis, the material will be
assumed to behave fully elastically 
, and will
assumed to fail in a brittle way.
The investigation will be made on
beam of 
a section of 
depth of 0.42 meters
, and
width of 0.27 meters
spanning 8.97 meters
which is
simply supported at both ends
Fundamentals of Blast Waves
An explosion can be defined as a large
scale, rapid and sudden release of energy.
The detonation of ahigh explosive generates
a large amount of energy. The energy expands forcing out the volume itoccupies, and as a result of this a layer of compressed air (
blast waves
) forms.When these
blast waves
reach to a surface, they
apply pressure
for a period of time.
As these blastwaves expand, they lose their density, i.e. their pressure value; however, they tend to act on thestructure for a longer time.Because the
blast waves
expandin a circle way in 3 dimensions,they
act on surfaces
in differentways
depending on distancebetween the explosion point andthe structures surface
. When thesurface is too close to the explosion point, the radius is very low, so the blast waves in the middle reachthe surface first, and in time the surrounding waves hit the surface
. When the distance is too long
, theradius gets bigger, so the perimeter, so it is
assumed that the waves act at the same time on the surface.
is called
field blast
will be
considered for this report 
as well for simplicity.
Blast Waves Pressure on Structures
Blast waves increase to a value of pressure abovethe ambient pressure. This is referred to as theside
on overpressure that decays as the shockwave expands outward from the explosionsource. After a short time, the pressure behindthe front may drop below the ambient pressure.During such a negative phase, a partial vacuum iscreated and air is sucked in.This can be shown like the figure at the left handside. The exponential decay is called thefreidlander decay. When dealing with
fieldblast loading
, the
exponential part can beidealized as a reverse ramp load 
, with the sameoverall impulse, which gives the
total load acting on the structure =
total area under the pressure
 time graph
, and the
negative part is neglected 
Static Failure Loading and the Failure Deflection
Now that the
magnitude of the loading and the shape of the loading are assumed 
the failure mode
willbe derived
for static loading case
, and then
be used for help for analysis of dynamical loading case
,which is the blast type of loading.
The assumed loading
, since far
field blast loading analysis is being made,
is uniformly distributed on thestructure.
If this loading was to act on the structure as a statically load; the maximum moment acting onthe beam would be given by well known formula = q × l
/ 8. The ultimate uniformly distributed that thisbeam can resist can be found by equating the ultimate bending moment to the resistance of thematerial and the section.
For the given material and the section
, by applying simple knowledge from mechanics of structures,
forstatic loading conditions
, the ultimate
moment resistance is
found to be
1627.3 kN.m
. And
assuming perfectly elastic behavior 
, for the given geometric and loading conditions
the deflection
this beammakes at failure
found to be
0.072 meters.
 The shear resistance of the given material is 118000 KPa. The loading that causes the maximum momentvalue is generated by a uniformly distributed 161.8 kN / m. This value causes a shear value of 725.7 kNat the supports, and a shear stress of 6399.23 KPa in the cross section, which means
the failure ishappens by flexure before shear in static load case.
However, as can be seen in the following pages, the shear check will be considered for dynamic analysisas well.
 Dynamic Loading Analysis
When static analysis is made, it is assumed that inertial force of the structure is not important. However,
in dynamic analysis
, when a great load is applied to a structure in a very short duration, the
becomes important
.In reality, structures have distributed mass, loading and resistance. But when doing
blast analysis
, asimplified method is used. The
that have been mentioned
are transformed
, or
assumed to belumped 
at a single point
. The factors for the given situation can be seen in the table below:
Method of Solution
The simplest way for blast wave solutions is free vibration solutions.
Basically, the
beam has beenreduced 
to a single degree of freedom structure with
equivalent factors
, and the (
assumed) uniformly distributed blast loading will be now assumed to be concatenated on this assumed lumped SDOF  freedom
that is assumed to deform
(and fail)
in the first mode
of (which is given by the staticallydeformed shape) deformed shape / vibration.After the simplifications are made,
dynamic analysis
can be done
on the
properties of the
SDOF model
, and the loading properties, namely the maximum loading value, and the duration of theloading.
Depending on the maximum deflection
and comparing with the static analysis deflection,
a judgmentcan be made if this beam will fail
or not;
in flexural failure
. (Shear failure has not been discussed yet.)

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