Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
11Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Gender Imbalance: The Perils in China and India

Gender Imbalance: The Perils in China and India

Ratings:

4.86

(22)
|Views: 6,567 |Likes:
Published by Munindra Khaund
A web of seamless relationships is being woven across national borders with untold economic impact worldwide. As a result, this unimpeded spread of knowledge, capital, and trade is exercising a strong influence on developmental trends, economic and human, in those countries that benefit most from this expansion. For example, in China and India, technology is contributing enormously to an economic development widely applauded and envied globally, yet at the same time, this rapid growth has engendered a potentially disastrous change in the makeup of its human population. The ratio of female-to-male births has become increasingly lopsided, a harbinger of an acute social problem caused by gender imbalance and its attendant ills.
A web of seamless relationships is being woven across national borders with untold economic impact worldwide. As a result, this unimpeded spread of knowledge, capital, and trade is exercising a strong influence on developmental trends, economic and human, in those countries that benefit most from this expansion. For example, in China and India, technology is contributing enormously to an economic development widely applauded and envied globally, yet at the same time, this rapid growth has engendered a potentially disastrous change in the makeup of its human population. The ratio of female-to-male births has become increasingly lopsided, a harbinger of an acute social problem caused by gender imbalance and its attendant ills.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Munindra Khaund on May 28, 2008
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/17/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Munindra Khaund
GENDER IMBALANCE:THE PERILS IN CHINA AND INDIA
A web of seamless relationships is being woven across national borderswith untold economic impact worldwide. As a result, this unimpededspread of knowledge, capital, and trade is exercising a strong influenceon developmental trends, economic and human, in those countries thatbenefit most from this expansion.For example, in China and India, technology is contributing enormouslyto an economic development widely applauded and envied globally, yetat the same time, this rapid growth has engendered a potentiallydisastrous change in the makeup of its human population. The ratio offemale-to-male births has become increasingly lopsided, a harbinger ofan acute social problem caused by gender imbalance and its attendantills.A condition of gender imbalance becomes manifest when deliberate sex-selection among babies takes place eliminating female fetuses, resultingin a preponderance of male births. The World Health Organization normis 950 girls per 1,000 boys. The ratios for both China and India arelarger.Gender imbalance is increasing in China due to the one-child policy, thelegacy of a society that legitimizes the death of a girl-child in the hopeof obtaining later a male. Nicholas Eberstad, in his study "Power andPopulation in Asia", has concluded that a regional bride shortage inChina is in process of becoming a national problem. More than a decadeago, Beijing University's chief demographer stated "the loss of femalebirths will affect the true sex ratio at birth and at young ages, creatingan unbalanced population sex structure in the future and resulting inpotentially serious social problems".
1
 
The relative ease of foreign adoption of female babies adds to theproblem. In the People's Daily, a Chinese vice-minister of the StatePopulation and Family Planning Commission acknowledged, "99 percentof Chinese children adopted by foreigners are girls, and boys under theage of 10 number millions more than girls of the same age". In "China'sQuiet Export: Children", the author cites data derived from U.S.Department of State documents: "U.S. parents adopt around 120,000children a year, of whom one in six originates from foreign countries.The largest source, China, accounted for over 6,800".According to the United Nations, there are 32 million fewer women thanmen in India. Sex determination tests are illegal under the IndianProhibition of Sex Selection Act of 1994. Nonetheless, in an effort toavoid wedding and dowry costs, parents often continue to practice "sonpreference".Within India, in the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, the extent ofgender imbalance has become alarming. The World Development Report2006 indicates that as early as 1993, there were "84 females for every100 males" and that "child mortality rates are higher among girls thanboys". The report reveals "several cases of infant girls who wereallowed to wither away and die in circumstances that would undoubtedlyhave prompted energetic action in the case of a male child".Prabhat Jha and his colleagues, in a recent study estimate 10 millionfemale fetuses may have been lost in the last 20 years. Ashish Boseand Mira Shiva's study, "Darkness at Noon", shows that "demographicfundamentalism" is on the rise in India. Amartya Sen argues that thisselection process also aids in confirming the low status of women inIndia. He coined the term "missing women" while referring to the female"deficit" in countries like China and India.India also has an increasing disparity of female-to-males fostered by aculture that ignores, or at least tolerates, female infanticide. Much ofthe anti-female bias is a relic of long-held cultural beliefs and socialnorms. In the Mahabharata, an ancient religious epic of India, thehusband has the freedom to terminate a marriage if 'a wife... acts as
2
 
she pleases, who is sterile or gives birth only to daughters or whosechildren die young.' The belief that daughters are in some sense"inferior" to sons pervades Hindu scriptures.Amartya Sen indicates that, "when anti-female bias is in action, itreflects the hold of traditional masculine values from which mothersthemselves may not be immune... what is needed is not just freedom ofaction but also freedom of thought - in a woman's ability and willingnessto question received values. Informed and critical action is important incombating inequality of every kind. Gender inequality, including its manyfaces, is no exception."In their book "Bare Branches: Security Implications of Asia's SurplusMale Population", Valerie M. Hudson and Andrea M. Den Boer cited tworebellions in Manchu Dynasty China wherein female infanticide wasprevalent thus leading to a disproportionately male society. The authorspoint to instances in history, biology, and sociology to demonstrate that"surplus males" will contribute to social disorder and higher crime rates.Daniel Little's book "Understanding Peasant China: Case Studies in thePhilosophy of Social Science" mentions that 19th-century Chineserebellions were also concentrated in areas that were disproportionatelymale. Their analysis indicates that low-status young adult men with littlechance of forming families of their own are "much more prone toattempt to improve their situation through violent and criminal behaviorin a strategy of coalitional aggression."In his book "Violent Land: Single Men and Social Disorder from theFrontier to the Inner City", David T. Courtwright examines the historicalpattern of American violence and disorder. Historically, America has hadan abundance of young men, which was beneficial from an economicstandpoint. From a social standpoint, however, "young men who workedhard also lived and played hard, often to the point of causing seriousviolence and disorder. Endocrine research, bolstered by historical,criminological, and cross-cultural studies, suggest that this tendency isuniversal".
3

Activity (11)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
psykosomatik liked this
Mustapha Masoud liked this
queijo0 liked this
banasick5906 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->