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kinematic and dynamic analysis of independent suspension system

kinematic and dynamic analysis of independent suspension system



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Published by siddhartha180987
it deals with the analysis of independent suspension system in brief
it deals with the analysis of independent suspension system in brief

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Published by: siddhartha180987 on May 28, 2008
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D N Siddhartha Jain, Ratnesh KumarManipal Institute of Technology
 As a part of the Formula SAE team, Manipal, the suspension team was required to do acomprehensive study of different available independent suspension system and henceforth develop amethodology to design the suspension system for the SAE car. This paper is a result of that work and discusses different aspects of suspension kinematics and dynamics and methods to analyses the suspensionsystem
to obtain a optimize suspension geometry
Independent Suspension, Mitchell, Roll centre, Motion Ratio,
Designing suspension system for production or racing car requires technical knowledgein several disciplines [4].This paper covers the various aspects of a typical suspension system including itseffects on car handling and ride comfort.When we talk about suspension geometry, it means a broad subject of how the unsprung mass of thevehicle is connected to the sprung mass. These connections not only dictate the path of relative motion, theyalso control the forces that are transmitted between them. Any particular geometry must be designed to meetthe needs of the particular vehicle for which it is to be applied. There is no single best geometry. In order tooptimize the suspension geometry, one requires the complete understanding of kinematics and dynamics of suspense. One of the first stages of suspension design is to size the mechanism and ensure it is capable of fitting into the packaging envelop. This requires the comprehensive analysis of suspension motions and forcesacting through suspension members including tires. In the past when there was no computers to help thehuman mind, a conventional and cumbersome graphical approach were followed but now a days we havespecial computational software like ADAMS and MITCHELL which can greatly reduce the effort and timerequired.In this paper, authors will introduce both the approaches as a part of suspension design.
The objective of this paper is to highlight following points
Introduce the basic features of vehicle suspension systems.
Indicate simple methods for the analysis of vehicle suspension systems and their components.
Demonstrate the design requirements for vehicle suspension systems and how to achieve them.
There is a lot of terminology associated with suspension designwhich may appear novel to someone meeting the subject for the first time.
Sprung Mass.
Sprung mass of vehicle refers to the mass supported by the suspension spring like spaceframe, engine etc.
Unsprung Mass.
Unsprung mass refers to the mass that is not supported by the spring for examplewheel, hub, bearings etc
Wheelbase refers to the distance between centre of front axle and centre of rear axle. Thewheelbase has a big effect on the longitudinal load transfer.
Trackwidth is define as the distance between the between the right and left wheelcenterlines
Since one of the functions of a suspension system is to maintain the position of the wheels constantrelative to the ground throughout the motion of the suspension it is important to identify how the wheelposition is defined. Figure 1Figure 1
Slip angle
. Slip angle of a tire is the angular deflection between the direction in which the tire ispointing and the direction in which the tire contact patch is travelling. The lateral force developed bythe tire is the function of slip angle [1].
Camber angle
. It is the lateral inclination of tire in the transverse vertical plane as measured from theground. It is necessary to have a small amount of negative camber in a suspension to induce camberthrust. Changes in the camber should be minimized to reduce the loss of camber thrust.3.
Steering axis inclination.
SAI is the lateral inclination of steering axis in the transverse vertical planeas measured from the ground.4.
Scrub radius
. It is the distance between the treads centre of pressure and the intersection of steeringaxis with the ground. It acts as a moment arm which induces a torque about the steering axis duringforward motion.5.
Caster angle.
It is the longitudinal inclination of the steering axis from vertical as measured from theground. Positive caster induces a self correcting force which provides the straight line stability.6.
Toe angle.
It is the angle in the plane view which the tire makes with the longitudinal axis. Static toeshould be set such that the tires do not become toe out during maximum bump and the roll.7.
 Roll center.
Roll centre in SAE is defined as “the point in transverse vertical plane trough any pair of wheel centers at which lateral forces may be applied to the sprung mass without producing suspensionroll
A dependent suspension system normallyhas a simple beam axle that holds wheels parallel to each other and perpendicular to the axle. When thecamber of one wheel changes, the camber of the opposite wheel changes in the same way. Hotchkisssuspension and trailing arm suspension comes under this category.An independent suspension allows wheels to rise and fall on their own without affecting theopposite wheel. In this case, the wheels are either not connected at all or are connected through universal joints with a swing axle. Macpherson and Double wishbone suspension comes under this category.The methods for suspension analysis describe in this paper are illustrated with the help of independent suspension system only
A suspension design is a compromisebetween the handling capacity of tire and ride quality of vehicle. The factors which increases the ride comfortdeteriorates the handling of vehicle. Good ride quality demands for flexible spring however stiffer spring isrequired to react various braking and acceleration loads. A passenger vehicle is design for a ride comfortwhereas a race car suspension is design for better car handling characteristics. In order to achieve good

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