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Finite Elements Method

# Finite Elements Method

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University of Sheffield MSc, Finite Elements Method, Finite Elements, Coursework, Computational Analysis, SAP2000, Plane Stress Assumption, Plane Strain, Structural Engineering
University of Sheffield MSc, Finite Elements Method, Finite Elements, Coursework, Computational Analysis, SAP2000, Plane Stress Assumption, Plane Strain, Structural Engineering

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01/23/2014

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FINITE ELEMENTS METHODPurpose :
To see how accurate FEM is, to find the errors inherent, and to provide suggestions.
Verification:
First a simple model with one mesh will be solved by hand and by the MATLAB codeprovided to see if the results verify each other. Plane Stress conditions are considered. Only crucialsteps are shown for the handmade solution.Node 1 and Node 4 will be the fixed nodes and a load of 1000N will be acted on node 3 acting in the
–
y direction. Young Modulus will be taken 10000 N/mm
2

and Poisson’s ratio ν will be 0.

Solution by Hand:
x and y values are in meters here:Node
1
= ( 0,0 )Node
2
= ( 2,0 )Node
3
= ( 2,1 )Node
4
= ( 0,1 )Shape Functions
N
1
( r,s ) = 0.25 × ( 1
–
r ) × ( 1
–
s )N
2
( r,s ) = 0.25 × ( 1 + r ) × ( 1
–
s )

N
3
( r,s ) = 0.25 × ( 1 + r ) × ( 1 + s )

N
4
( r,s ) = 0.25 × ( 1
–
r ) × ( 1 + s )

Jacobian Matrix = [ 1,0 ; 0,0.5 ]Inverse of Jacobian Matrix = [ 1,0 ; 0,2]Determinant of Jacobian Matrix = 0.5With Plane Stress Conditions the D Matrix is = [ 10,0,0 ; 0,10,0 ; 0,0,5 ]The element matrices will be integrated using 2 × 2 Gauss quadrature with the following coordinatesin the parent element and weights :r
1
=
–
1 / ( 3
0.5
), r
2
= 1 / ( 3
0.5
)s
1
=
–
1 / ( 3
0.5
), s
2
= 1 / ( 3
0.5
)The stiffness matrix given by:
K=K
(1)
=∑∑W
i
×W
j
×|J
e
( r
i
,s
i
)| × B
eT
( r
i
,s
i
) × D
e
× B
e
( r
i
,s
i
)

Repeating the process for four times for each Gauss Points we get the element stiffness matrix,which is the Global stiffness matrix for this structure which is given by:5.0008 1.2500 -0.0008 -1.2500 -2.4992 -1.2500 -2.5008 1.25001.2500 7.5012 1.2500 2.4988 -1.2500 -3.7488 -1.2500 -6.2512-0.0008 1.2500 5.0008 -1.2500 -2.5008 -1.2500 -2.4992 1.2500-1.2500 2.4988 -1.2500 7.5012 1.2500 -6.2512 1.2500 -3.7488-2.4992 -1.2500 -2.5008 1.2500 5.0008 1.2500 -0.0008 -1.2500-1.2500 -3.7488 -1.2500 -6.2512 1.2500 7.5012 1.2500 2.4988-2.5008 -1.2500 -2.4992 1.2500 -0.0008 1.2500 5.0008 -1.25001.2500 -6.2512 1.2500 -3.7488 -1.2500 2.4988 -1.2500 7.5012The force matrix is = [ 0 ; 0 ; 0 ; 0 ; 0 ; -1 ; 0 ; 0 ]The boundary conditions matrix is = [ 0 ; 0 ; u
x
; u
y
; u
x
; u
y
; 0 ; 0 ]From 3
rd
row to 6
th
row and 3
rd
column to 6
th
column of the stiffness matrix is required.Solving
K × U = D
by Matlab gives the displacements:ans =-0.3998-1.16310.3998-1.2359corresponding to 2
nd
Node x displacement, 2
nd
node y displacement, 3
rd
node x displacement, 3
rd
rowy displacement in order.The final displacement vector is = [ 0 ; 0 ; -0.3998 ; -1.1631 ; 0.3998 ; -1.2359 ; 0 ; 0 ]
Validation:
The results make sense since the displacement at node 2 and 3 in x directions are equal but in theopposite direction, since our shape is linear, and displacement at node 3 at y direction is slightlylarger than the displacement in y direction at node 4 as expected.

Solving the same system with the MATLAB Codes provided for the coursework
Modified Inputs :
L = 2000; nx = 1;% dimension and number of elements in x-dir

H = 1000; ny = 1;% dimension and number of elements in y-dir

W = 1;% dimension in third direction

E = 10000;v = 0;

fglobal(nodnum*2) = -1000;

And the displacements given by the code are :displacements =0 0 0 0 -0.4000 -1.1636 0.4000 -1.2364Since the numbering is different, the displacement vectors are not exactly same. But correspondingdisplacements are same so this verifies that we are on the right track.(The deformed shape above has a scale factor of 250.)
Here we have used a rectangular element with four nodes only. To use in our final conclusions about  finite elements method, the same system will be solved with the commercial software called SAP2000, which uses high-order quadratic elements and the finite elements method.The displacement at the right top corner will be used for comparison. From hereafter the codemin(min(displacements)) is added to the given Matlab Code to gather the top right displacement.With the necessary modelling a displacement of -2.8212 millimetres is given at the top right corner.(With the hand solution and the Matlab code given we had a displacement of -1.1636 millimetreswhich is a difference of more than 100%)By a little experiment, a mesh of 2 × 2 on the Matlab Code Provided we get a displacement of -2.4982millimetres for the system for the node considered which is the top right one.It is seen that with four
–
four noded quadratic elements, the displacement is closer to the one withone mesh higher order element. It can be concluded from this little experiment that, thedisadvantage of four-noded element is that the stiffness is too high, so the displacement was toolow. The more meshes we got, the closer we got to the result we got with the higher order element.The conclusions derived from this little experiment will be used later.