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20299289 Proudhon What is Property

20299289 Proudhon What is Property

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WHAT IS PROPERTY? AN INQUIRY INTO THE PRINCIPLE OFRIGHT AND OF GOVERNMENT
P. J. Proudhon1840
Translated from the French by Benj. R. Tucker with a new Introduction by
GEORGE
WOODCOCK DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK Copyright (c) 1970 by Dover Publications, Inc.All rights reserved under Pan American and International Copyright Conventions.Published in Canada by General Publishing Company, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto,Ontario.Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC2.This Dover edition, first published in 1970, is an unabridged and unaltered republication of theEnglish translation originally published by Humboldt Publishing Company c. 1890. The publisher gratefully acknowledges the cooperation of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
 International Standard Book Number: 0-486-22486-4 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number:72-124179
 Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street NewYork, N. Y. 10014-
 xvii
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CONTENTS.
P. J. PROUDHON: HIS LIFE AND HIS WORKS xxiPREFACE 1FIRST MEMOIR CHAPTER I.METHOD PURSUED IN THIS WORK. -- THE IDEA OF A REVOLUTION 11CHAPTER II.PROPERTY CONSIDERED AS A NATURAL RIGHT. -- OCCUPATION AND CIVILLAW AS EFFICIENT BASES OF PROPERTY. -- DEFINITIONS 42§ 1. Property as a Natural Right 44§ 2. Occupation as the Title to Property 54§ 3. Civil Law as the Foundation and Sanction of Property 70CHAPTER III.LABOR AS THE EFFICIENT CAUSE OF THE DOMAIN OF PROPERTY 84
 
§ 1. The Land cannot be appropriated 88§ 2. Universal Consent no Justification of Property 93-
 xviii
-§ 3. Prescription gives no Title to Property 94§ 4. Labor. -- That Labor has no Inherent Power to appropriate Natural Wealth 103§ 5. That Labor leads to Equality of Property 110§ 6. That in Society all Wages are Equal 121§ 7. That Inequality of Powers is the Necessary Condition of Equality of Fortunes 128§ 8. That, from the stand-point of Justice, Labor destroys Property 148CHAPTER IV.THAT PROPERTY IS IMPOSSIBLE 151DEMONSTRATION. AXIOM.Property is the Right of Increase claimed by the Proprietor over any thing which he hasstamped as his own 153FIRST PROPOSITION.Property is Impossible, because it demands Something for Nothing 159SECOND PROPOSITION.Property is Impossible, because, wherever it exists, Production costs more than it is worth 168THIRD PROPOSITION.Property is Impossible, because, with a given Capital, Production is proportional to Labor, notto Property 172FOURTH PROPOSITION.Property is Impossible, because it is Homicide 177FIFTH PROPOSITION.Property is Impossible, because, if it exists, Society devours itself 183Appendix to the Fifth Proposition 195SIXTH PROPOSITION.Property is Impossible, because it is the Mother of Tyranny 207SEVENTH PROPOSITION.Property is Impossible, because, in consuming its Receipts, it loses them; in hoarding them, itnullifies them; and, in using them as Capital, it turns them against Production 209-
 xix
-EIGHTH PROPOSITION.Property is Impossible, because its Power of Accumulation is infinite, and is exercised onlyover Finite Quantities 215 NINTH PROPOSITIONProperty is Impossible, because it is powerless against Property 217TENTH PROPOSITION.Property is Impossible, because it is the Negation of Equality 222CHAPTER V.
 
PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPOSITION OF THE IDEA OF JUSTICE AND IN JUSTICE, ANDA DETERMINATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF GOVERNMENT AND OF RIGHT 224PART 1.§ 1. Of the Moral Sense in Man and the Animals 224§ 2. Of the First and Second Degrees of Sociability 230§ 3. Of the Third Degree of Sociability 238PART I 1.§ 1. Of the Causes of our Mistakes. The Origin of Property 250§ 2. Characteristics of Communism and of Property 259§ 3. Determination of the Third Form of Society. Conclusion 280SECOND MEMOIR LETTER TO M. BLANQUI ON PROPERTY 291
P. J. PROUDHON: HIS LIFE AND HIS WORKS.
The correspondence[1] of P. J. Proudhon, the first volumes of which we publish to-day, has beencollected since his death by the faithful and intelligent labors of his daughter, aided by a fewfriends. It was incomplete when submitted to Sainte Beuve, but the portion with which theillustrious academician became acquainted was sufficient to allow him to estimate it as a wholewith that soundness of judgment which characterized him as a literary critic.In an important work, which his habitual readers certainly have not forgotten, although death didnot allow him to finish it, Sainte Beuve thus judges the correspondence of the great publicist: --"The letters of Proudhon, even outside the circle of his particular friends, will always be of value;we can always learn something from them, and here is the proper place to determine the generalcharacter of his correspondence.[1] In the French edition of Proudhon's works, the above sketch of his life is prefixed to the firstvolume of his correspondence, but the translator prefers to insert it here as the best method of introducing the author to the American public. He would, however, caution readers againstaccepting the biographer's interpretation of the author's views as in any sense authoritative; advisingthem, rather, to await the publication of the remainder of Proudhon's writings, that they may forman opinion for themselves. --
Translator 
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 xxii
-"It has always been large, especially since he became so celebrated; and, to tell the truth, I am persuaded that, in the future, the correspondence of Proudhon will be his principal, vital work, andthat most of his books will be only accessory to and corroborative of this. At any rate, his books can be well understood only by the aid of his letters and the continual explanations which he makes tothose who consult him in their doubt, and request him to define more clearly his position."There are, among celebrated people, many methods of correspondence. There are those to whomletter-writing is a bore, and who, assailed with questions and compliments, reply in the greatesthaste, solely that the job may be over with, and who return politeness for politeness, mingling itwith more or less wit. This kind of correspondence, though coming from celebrated people, isinsignificant and unworthy of collection and classification."After those who write letters in performance of a disagreeable duty, and almost side by side withthem in point of insignificance, I should put those who write in a manner wholly external, whollysuperficial, devoted only to flattery, lavishing praise like gold, without counting it; and those also

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