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Logic Families

Logic Families

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Logic Families
There are a variety of circuit configurations or more appropriately various approaches used to produce different types of digital integrated circuit. Each such fundamental approach is called a
logic family
. The idea is that different logicfunctions, when fabricated in the form of an IC with the same approach, or in other words belonging to the same logicfamily, will have identical electrical characteristics. These characteristics include supply voltage range, speed of response, power dissipation, input and output logic levels, current sourcing and sinking capability, fan-out, noise margin, etc. Inother words, the set of digital ICs belonging to the same logic family are electrically compatible with each other. In thecase where the output of an IC belonging to a certain family feeds the inputs of another IC belonging to a different family,we must use established interface techniques to ensure compatibility.
Types of Logic Family
The entire range of digital ICs is fabricated using either bipolar devices or MOS devices or combination of the two.Bipolar families include:Diode logic (DL)Resistor transistor logic (RTL)Diode transistor logic (DTL)Transistor transistor logic (TTL)Emitter coupled logic (ECL) also known as current mode logic (CML)Integrated injection logic (I2L).The logic families that use MOS devices as their basis are known as MOS families, and the prominent members belongingto this category are:PMOS family (using P-channel MOSFETs) NMOS family (using N-channel MOSFETs)CMOS family (using both N- and P-channel devices)The Bi-MOS logic family uses both bipolar and MOS devices. Diode logic used diodes and resistors and in fact was never implemented in integrated circuits. The RTL family used resistors and bipolar transistors, while the DTL family usedresistors, diodes and bipolar transistors are of historical importance only. Both RTL and DTL suffered from large propagation delay. Logic families that are still in widespread use include TTL, CMOS, ECL, NMOS and Bi-CMOS.The PMOS and I2L logic families
TTL Subfamilies
The ICs belonging to the TTL family are designated as 74 or 54 (for standard TTL),74L or 54L (for low-power TTL), 74H or 54H (for high-power TTL), 74LS or 54LS (for low-power Schottky TTL), 74Sor 54S (for Schottky TTL), 74ALS or 54ALS (for advanced low-power Schottky TTL), 74AS or 54AS (for advanced
 
Schottky TTL) and 74F or 54F (for fast TTL). An alphabetic code preceding this indicates the name of the manufacturer (DM for National Semiconductors, SN for Texas Instruments and so on). A two-, three- or four-digit numerical code tellsthe logic function performed by the IC.
CMOS Subfamilies
The chief advantage of the MOSFETare that it is relatively simple and inexpensive to fabricate, it is small, and itconsumes very little power. The fabrication of MOS ICs is approximately one0third as complex as the fabrication of  bipolar ICs. In addition, MOS devices occupy much less space on a chip that bipolar transistor requires. Typically aMOSFET requires 1 square mil of chip area while a bipolar transistor requires about 60 square mils. More important,MOS digital ICs normally do not use the IC resistor elements that take up so much of the chip area of bipolar ICs.All of this means that MOS ICs can accommodate a much larger number of circuit elements on a single chip than bipolar ICs. This advantage is evidenced by the fact that MOS ICs have dominated bipolar ICs in the area of large-scaleintegration. The high packing density of MOS ICs make them especially well suited for complex ICs such asmicroprocessor and memory chips.The principal disadvantage of MOS ICs is their relatively sow operating speed when compared with the bipolar IC families. In may applications this is not a prime consideration, and so MOS logic offers an oftensuperior alternative to bipolar logic. The popular CMOS subfamilies include the 4000A, 4000B, 4000UB, 54/74C,54/74HC, 54/74HCT,54/74AC and 54/74ACT families. 54/74C, 54/74HC, 54/74HCT, 54/74AC and 54/74ACTare CMOS logic families with pin-compatible 54/74 TTL series logic functions.
Characteristic Parameters
HIGH-level input current,
 I 
IH
. This is the current flowing into the input when a HIGH-level input voltage equal to theminimum HIGH-level output voltage specified for the family is applied.
LOW-level input current,
 I 
IL
. The LOW-level input current is the maximum current flowing into the input of a logicfunction when the voltage applied at the input equals the maximum LOW-level output voltage specified for the family.
HIGH-level output current,
 I 
OH
. This is the maximum current flowing out of an output whenthe input conditions are such that the output is in the logic HIGH state. It tells about the current sourcing capability of theoutput. The magnitude of I
OH
determines the number of inputs the logic function can drive when its output is in the logicHIGH state. For example, for the standard TTL family, the minimum guaranteed IOH is 400μA, which can drive 10standard TTL inputs with each requiring 40μA in the HIGH state.
LOW-level output current,
 I 
OL
. This is the maximum current flowing into the output pin of a logic function when theinput conditions are such that the output is in the logic LOW state. It tells about the current sinking capability of theoutput. The magnitude of I
OL
determines the number of inputs the logic function can drive when its output is in the logicLOW state. For example, for the standard TTL family, the minimum guaranteed I
OL
is 16mA, which can drive 10 standardTTL inputs with each requiring 1.6mA in the LOW state
 
HIGH-level input voltage,
IH
. This is the minimum voltage level that needs to be applied at the input to be recognizedas a legal HIGH level for the specified family. For the standard TTL family, a 2 V input voltage is a legal HIGH logicstate.
LOW-level input voltage,
IL
. This is the maximum voltage level applied at the input that isrecognized as a legal LOW level for the specified family. For the standard TTL family, an inputvoltage of 0.8 V is a legal LOW logic state.
HIGH-level output voltage,
OH
. This is the minimum voltage on the output pin of a logic function when the inputconditions establish logic HIGH at the output for the specified family. In the case of the standard TTL family of devices,the HIGH level output voltage can be as low as 2.4V and still be treated as a legal HIGH logic state. It may be mentionedhere that, for a given logic family, the V
OH
specification is always greater than the V
IH
specification to ensure output-to-input compatibility when the output of one device feeds the input of another.
LOW-level output voltage,
OL
. This is the maximum voltage on the output pin of a logic function when the inputconditions establish logic LOW at the output for the specified family. In the case of the standard TTL family of devices,the LOW-level output voltage can be as high as 0.4V and still be treated as a legal LOW logic state. It may be mentionedhere that, for a given logic family, the V
OL
specification is always smaller than the V
IL
specification to ensure output-to-input compatibility when the output of one device feeds the input of another.
Supply current,
 I 
CC
& Supply Voltage V
CC
.
Every IC requires certain amount of electrical power to operate. This power is supplied by a supply connected tothe power pin of the IC. This is known as V
CC
(for TTL) and V
DD
(for CMOS). I
CC
can be defined as the current drawn bythe IC from the power supply.
Rise time,
r
Fall time,
f .
Propagation delay
p.
The logic signal always experiences a delay in going through acircuit. The two propogation delay times are defined as• Propagation delay
pLH
.• Propagation delay
 pHL
.
Maximum clock frequency,
 f  
max
.
This is the maximum frequency at which the clock input of a flip-flop can be driven through its required sequence whilemaintaining stable transitions of logic level at the output in accordance with the input conditions and the productspecification. It is also referred to as the maximum toggle rate for a flip-flop or counter device.
Power dissipation.
The power dissipation parameter for a logic family is specified in terms of power consumption per gate and is the productof supply voltage VCC and supply current ICC.
Speed–power product.

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