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Geometry Notes, Chapter One, Points Lines Planes Angles

# Geometry Notes, Chapter One, Points Lines Planes Angles

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03/26/2014

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IB GEOMETRY BIBLE Chapter One 1
Chapter One (Points, Lines, Planes, and Angles)Chapter One (Points, Lines, Planes, and Angles)Chapter One (Points, Lines, Planes, and Angles)Chapter One (Points, Lines, Planes, and Angles)
Chapter One, Section OneChapter One, Section OneChapter One, Section OneChapter One, Section One (Some Basic Figures)(Some Basic Figures)(Some Basic Figures)(Some Basic Figures)No notes, definitions, etc...Chapter One, Section TwoChapter One, Section TwoChapter One, Section TwoChapter One, Section Two (Points, Lines, and Planes)(Points, Lines, and Planes)(Points, Lines, and Planes)(Points, Lines, and Planes)A p

ointpointpointpoint is the simplest figure studied in geometry.Although a point doesn’t have any size, it is often represented bya dot that does have some size. You usually name points bycapital letters. Points A and B are pictured at the right.All geometric figures consist of points. One familiargeometric figure is a linelinelineline, which extends in two directions withoutending. Although a picture of a line has some thickness, the lineitself has no thickness.Often a line is referred to by a single lower-case letter,such as
line l
. If you know that a line contains the points A andB, you can also call it
line
AB (denoted AB) or
line
BA (BA).A geometric planeplaneplaneplane is suggested by a floor, wall, or table top. Unlike a tabletop, a plane extends without ending and has no thickness. Although a plane has noedges, we usually picture a plan by drawing a four-sided figure as shown below. Weoften label a plane with a capital letter.AAAABBBBAAAABBBB
l

MMMMNNNNPlane NPlane MCONTENTSSome Basic Figures1111----1111 A Game and Some Geometry1111----2222 Points, Lines, and PlanesDefinitions and Postulates1111----3333 Segments, Rays and Distance1111----4444 Angles1111----5555 Postulates and Theorems RelatingPoints, Lines, and PlanesThis particular set of notes is fromGeometry, published by McDougal Littell.All credit is to be given to the authors andpublishers of said book. The study guidemade from the book contains definitions,diagrams, and notes taken directly from thebook.

IB GEOMETRY BIBLE Chapter One 2SpaceSpaceSpaceSpace is the set of all points. Collinear pointsCollinear pointsCollinear pointsCollinear points are points all in one line.Coplanar pointsCoplanar pointsCoplanar pointsCoplanar points are points all in one plane.The intersectionintersectionintersectionintersection of two figures is the set of points that are in both figures.
Collinear points Noncollinear pointsCoplanar points
OOOO
l
h
l
A is in
l
, or A is on
.
l
contains A.
l
passes through A.
l
and
h
, intersect in O.
l
and
h
intersect at O.O is the intersection of
l
and
h

k
PPPPMMMM MMMMXXXXNNNNYYYY
k
and P are in M.

M contains
k
and P.intersects M at P.

P is the intersection of
j
and M.

M and N intersect in XY.XY is the intersection of M and N.XY is in M and N.M and N contain XY.
Noncoplanar points

IB GEOMETRY BIBLE Chapter One 3The ceiling and floor of a room can be thought of as parts of horizontal planehorizontal planehorizontal planehorizontal planessss. Thewalls are parts of vertical planesvertical planesvertical planesvertical planes. Vertical planes are represented where two sidesare vertical. Horizontal planes are represented by a figure with no sides vertical andtwo sides horizontal. While horizontal planes are parallel, vertical planes are not.Chapter One, Section TChapter One, Section TChapter One, Section TChapter One, Section Threehreehreehree ((((Definitions and PostulatesDefinitions and PostulatesDefinitions and PostulatesDefinitions and Postulates))))

Segment ACSegment ACSegment ACSegment AC, consists of points A and C and all pointsthat are between A and C. Points A and C are calledthe endpointsendpointsendpointsendpoints of AC.Ray ACRay ACRay ACRay AC, denoted AC, consists of AC and all other pointsP such that C is between A and P. The endpointendpointendpointendpoint of ACis A, the point named first.SR and ST are called opposite raysopposite raysopposite raysopposite rays if S is between Rand T.On a number linenumber linenumber linenumber line every point is paired with a number and every number is paired with apoint. In the diagram, point J is paired with -3, the coordinatecoordinatecoordinatecoordinate of J.The lengthlengthlengthlength of MJ, denoted by MJ, is the distance between point M and point J. Youcan find the length of a segment on a number line by subtracting the coordinates of its endpoints:MJ = 4 – (-3) = 7 Using number lines involves following basic assumptions. Statements such as thesethat are accepted without proof are called postulatespostulatespostulatespostulates or axiomsaxiomsaxiomsaxioms.Horizontal planeVertical plane
AAAA CCCCBBBB
AAAA CCCCACACACACAAAA
CCCC PPPPACACACAC

TTTT
SSSSRRRR0000 1111 2222 3333 4444 5555---- 1111----2222----3333----4444----5555
JJJJ KKKK LLLL MMMM