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STPM BIOLOGY Photosynthesis

STPM BIOLOGY Photosynthesis

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Published by: wkwhui on May 16, 2010
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Photosynthesis
The chloroplast of plants capture light energy that has traveled 150 millionkilometers from the sun and convert it to chemical energy stored in sugar andother organic molecules.
This conversion process is called photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis can be summarized as6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
Chloroplast
Chloroplast is the sites of photosynthesis in plants.
The colour of the leaf is from chlorophyll, the green pigment located withinchloroplast.
Chloroplasts are formed mainly in the cells of the mesophyll, the tissue in theinterior of the leaf.
Chlorophyll is not a single substance, but a mixture of pigments that compriseschlorophyll a (blue-green), chlorophyll b (yellow green) and some carotenoidssuch as alpha-carotene (orange), xanthophylls (yellow) and phaeophytin (grey).
Chlorophyll a is the most abundant photosynthetic pigment. The molecule of chlorophyll a has a head called porphyrin ring magnesium atom at its center.Attached to the prophyrin is a hydrophobic tail, which interacts with hydrophobicregions of proteins in the thylakoid membrane.
Chlorophyll b differs from chlorophyll a only in one of the functional groups bonded to the porphyrin.
 
The biochemical reactions involved in photosynthesis can be divided into two phases:
1.
Light reaction, which occurs in the grana of chloroplasts and require acontinual supply of sunlight.
2.
Dark reaction, which occurs in the stroma chloroplasts and can carry on for some time in darkness after the light reaction.Importance of photosynthesis1.Photosynthesis and metabolism in plants
The products of photosynthesis can support all metabolic needs of green plants.1.Photosynthesis and food chain
Plants are the producer, which provide food required by almost all livingorganism directly and indirectly.1.Photosynthesis and air composition
Photosynthesis helps to reuse the excess carbon dioxide that released into theatmosphere daily from respiration and burning of fossil fuel.
Photosynthesis also releases oxygen.Light reaction (light-dependent reaction)
The light reaction pathway involves the following stages:
1.
Absorption of light energy and photoactivation of chlorophyll
2.
ATP synthesis through photophosphorylation3.Production of NADPH4.Production of oxygen from photolysis of water 
 
The chlorophyll complex is located in thylakoid membrane and is arranged ingroups of hundreds of molecules, called photosystem.
A photosystem is an assemblage of 200 to 400 pigment molecules together with a primary electron acceptor and a series of electron carriers.
There are two types of photosystem: photosystem I and photosystem II.
Each has a characteristic reaction-center complex – a particular kind of primaryelectron acceptor next to special pairs of chlorophyll a molecules associated withspecific proteins.
There are two types of pigment, P680 and P700. Although these two pigment arenearly identical to chlorophyll a molecules.
However, their association with different proteins in the thylakoid membraneaffects the electron distribution in the two pigments and accounts for the slightdifferences in their light-absorbing properties.Photosystem I
The chlorophyll a at the rection-center complex is called P700 because it mosteffectively absorbs light of wavelength 700nm.Photosystem II
The reaction-center complex is known as P680 because that pigment is best atabsorbing light having a wavelength of 680nm.

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